“Electrification. 100 years of the GOELRO plan. The most lamp show

Some things we tend to take for granted. Or even as it has always been. However, they all have their own beginning, which was simply forgotten behind the prescription of years or more significant events. We are accustomed to attribute the availability of electricity in our home to such self-evident facts. Moreover, the vast majority have no idea what is behind the simple phrase "connect to the power grid." Meanwhile, even a hundred years ago, the situation was much more complicated.

For starters, it's a good idea to remember that until the 19th century, the whole world did not use electricity. Yes, one can recall individual experiences, but, in fact, from the time of the pharaohs to Napoleon, who contributed a lot to digging out these same pharaohs from under the millennia-old sands, electricity was nothing more than entertainment for an inquisitive mind at leisure for mankind. The turning point came only in the second half of the 19th century, when the first generators appeared capable of generating electric current on a permanent basis.

Alessandro Volta demonstrates experiments on electricity to First Consul Bonaparte. The possibility of practical application is clearly visible on the face of Napoleon. (image taken from kunst-fuer-alle.de)

However, this phenomenon was very far from how we now imagine both the power grid and the use of electricity. Let's start with the fact that neither scientific nor practical experience for a long time gave an answer to the question of how to transfer electricity from the producer to the consumer without acceptable losses. Therefore, the first power plants were something like a modern emergency gas generator - they were located next to the facility where this electricity was required. Secondly, it seems from the position of today that electric lighting is something taken for granted. At first, illumination was just illumination, and not a natural way to illuminate a dwelling or production facility.

But the biggest problem was not even the "backwardness" of science, but the inertia of thinking and the lack of practical experience sufficient to make an informed decision. An example of the former is a call to Drying Racks in Uganda to Deputy of the IV State Duma Count Alexei Orlov-Davydov from Bishop Simeon of Samara and Stavropol in 1913: “Your Excellency, calling upon you God’s grace, I ask you to accept archpastoral notice: on your hereditary ancestral possessions, the projectors of the Samara Technical Society, together with the apostate engineer Krzhizhanovsky, are designing the construction of a dam and a large power plant. Show mercy by your arrival to preserve God's peace in the Zhiguli possessions and destroy sedition in conception. "What kind of demonic machinations overtook the apostate Krzhizhanovsky Yes, in general, nothing special happened - they were developing, including with geodetic reconnaissance of the area, in order to find out the possibilities of using the water resources of the Volga River in the Samarskaya Luka area.

As examples of the second, we can recall how electric lighting was introduced on ships. The first ship in the world to be “completely” (in fact, not all interiors had electric lights) was illuminated by electricity was the British battleship Inflexible. To begin with, the Royal Admiralty approved an interesting composition of lamps for lighting: it consisted of chains of 19 lamps, each of which had one arc lamp and 18 incandescent lamps. But the engineering mind didn't stop there. The lamps were connected in series in a circuit, each with its own switch. Thus, a part of the ship could lose lighting not only due to a burnt out light bulb, but simply because someone did not turn the switch on time. Do you think that the absurdity of the design ended there? No matter how. This circuit was powered by direct current with a voltage of 800 volts, the wires were without insulation, but on insulators. By today's standards, not a ship, but a floating electric chair. Therefore, it is no wonder that he was not only the first ship with electric lighting, but also the first ship to electric kill. However, only his own team.

HMS Inflexible in Portsmouth. Electric lighting was far from the only "original" detail of his design. (Image taken from wikipedia.org)

By the beginning of the 20th century, the number of such tragicomic situations began to decline, but it was still very far from what we now consider electrification. Cases when two or more power plants worked in parallel on the same network did not go beyond the limits of single experiments. The benefits of such work did not seem so obvious, theoretical calculations caused skepticism among those responsible for practical implementation. And besides, there were already quite a few power plants around the world, almost each of which produced its own unique current, which differed both in current-voltage characteristics and in frequency, if it came to alternating current. It was simply impossible to bring them into a single network without reconstructing one or another complexity.

The situation could be saved by the mass market for electrical goods, which would require standardization, but it simply did not exist. The main consumers were industrial enterprises and electric vehicles, which could perfectly exist in isolation from each other and form orders for equipment based on their unique characteristics. After all, serial production, when goods are mass-produced on a unified production line, was also still absent. Therefore, changing the characteristics of the output current for the production of the same generators had almost no effect on the cost of the product.

Changes began during the First World War, which spurred mass production and put the need for economical use of resources at the forefront. In many ways, the industry with which the whole world approached the beginning of the digital age was basically the brainchild of the Great War.

“Electrification. 100 years of the GOELRO plan. The most lamp show

Some things we tend to take for granted. Or even as it has always been. However, they all have their own beginning, which was simply forgotten behind the prescription of years or more significant events. We are accustomed to attribute the availability of electricity in our home to such self-evident facts. Moreover, the vast majority have no idea what is behind the simple phrase "connect to the power grid." Meanwhile, even a hundred years ago, the situation was much more complicated.

For starters, it's a good idea to remember that until the 19th century, the whole world did not use electricity. Yes, one can recall individual experiences, but, in fact, from the time of the pharaohs to Napoleon, who contributed a lot to digging out these same pharaohs from under the millennia-old sands, electricity was nothing more than entertainment for an inquisitive mind at leisure for mankind. The turning point came only in the second half of the 19th century, when the first generators appeared capable of generating electric current on a permanent basis.

Alessandro Volta demonstrates experiments on electricity to First Consul Bonaparte. The possibility of practical application is clearly visible on the face of Napoleon. (image taken from kunst-fuer-alle.de)

However, this phenomenon was very far from how we now imagine both the power grid and the use of electricity. Let's start with the fact that neither scientific nor practical experience for a long time gave an answer to the question of how to transfer electricity from the producer to the consumer without acceptable losses. Therefore, the first power plants were something like a modern emergency gas generator - they were located next to the facility where this electricity was required. Secondly, it seems from the position of today that electric lighting is a matter of course. At first, illumination was just illumination, and not a natural way to illuminate a dwelling or production facility.

But the biggest problem was not even the "backwardness" of science, but the inertia of thinking and the lack of practical experience sufficient to make an informed decision. An example of the former is a call to Drying Racks in Uganda to Deputy of the IV State Duma Count Alexei Orlov-Davydov from Bishop Simeon of Samara and Stavropol in 1913: “Your Excellency, calling upon you God’s grace, I ask you to accept archpastoral notice: on your hereditary ancestral possessions, the projectors of the Samara Technical Society, together with the apostate engineer Krzhizhanovsky, are designing the construction of a dam and a large power plant. Show mercy by your arrival to preserve God's peace in the Zhiguli possessions and destroy sedition in conception. "What kind of demonic machinations overtook the apostate Krzhizhanovsky Yes, in general, nothing special happened - they were developing, including with geodetic reconnaissance of the area, in order to find out the possibilities of using the water resources of the Volga River in the Samarskaya Luka area.

As examples of the second, we can recall how electric lighting was introduced on ships. The first ship in the world to be “completely” (in fact, not all interiors had electric lights) was illuminated by electricity was the British battleship Inflexible. To begin with, the Royal Admiralty approved an interesting composition of lamps for lighting: it consisted of chains of 19 lamps, each of which had one arc lamp and 18 incandescent lamps. But the engineering mind didn't stop there. The lamps were connected in series in a circuit, each with its own switch. Thus, a part of the ship could lose lighting not only due to a burnt out light bulb, but simply because someone did not turn the switch on time. Do you think that the absurdity of the design ended there? No matter how. This circuit was powered by direct current with a voltage of 800 volts, the wires were without insulation, but on insulators. By today's standards, not a ship, but a floating electric chair. Therefore, it is no wonder that he was not only the first ship with electric lighting, but also the first ship to electric kill. However, only his own team.

HMS Inflexible in Portsmouth. Electric lighting was far from the only "original" detail of his design. (Image taken from wikipedia.org)

By the beginning of the 20th century, the number of such tragicomic situations began to decline, but it was still very far from what we now consider electrification. Cases when two or more power plants worked in parallel on the same network did not go beyond the limits of single experiments. The benefits of such work did not seem so obvious, theoretical calculations caused skepticism among those responsible for practical implementation. And besides, there were already quite a few power plants around the world, almost each of which produced its own unique current, which differed both in current-voltage characteristics and in frequency, if it came to alternating current. It was simply impossible to bring them into a single network without reconstructing one or another complexity.

The situation could be saved by the mass market for electrical goods, which would require standardization, but it simply did not exist. The main consumers were industrial enterprises and electric vehicles, which could perfectly exist in isolation from each other and form orders for equipment based on their unique characteristics. After all, serial production, when goods are mass-produced on a unified production line, was also still absent. Therefore, changing the characteristics of the output current for the production of the same generators had almost no effect on the cost of the product.

Changes began during the First World War, which spurred mass production and put the need for economical use of resources at the forefront. In many ways, the industry with which the whole world approached the beginning of the digital age was basically the brainchild of the Great War.

“Electrification. 100 years of the GOELRO plan. The most lamp show

Some things we tend to take for granted. Or even as it has always been. However, they all have their own beginning, which was simply forgotten behind the prescription of years or more significant events. We are accustomed to attribute the availability of electricity in our home to such self-evident facts. Moreover, the vast majority have no idea what is behind the simple phrase "connect to the power grid." Meanwhile, even a hundred years ago, the situation was much more complicated.

For starters, it's a good idea to remember that until the 19th century, the whole world did not use electricity. Yes, one can recall individual experiences, but, in fact, from the time of the pharaohs to Napoleon, who contributed a lot to digging out these same pharaohs from under the millennia-old sands, electricity was nothing more than entertainment for an inquisitive mind at leisure for mankind. The turning point came only in the second half of the 19th century, when the first generators appeared capable of generating electric current on a permanent basis.

Alessandro Volta demonstrates experiments on electricity to First Consul Bonaparte. The possibility of practical application is clearly visible on the face of Napoleon. (image taken from kunst-fuer-alle.de)

However, this phenomenon was very far from how we now imagine both the power grid and the use of electricity. Let's start with the fact that neither scientific nor practical experience for a long time gave an answer to the question of how to transfer electricity from the producer to the consumer without acceptable losses. Therefore, the first power plants were something like a modern emergency gas generator - they were located next to the facility where this electricity was required. Secondly, it seems from the position of today that electric lighting is something taken for granted. At first, illumination was just illumination, and not a natural way to illuminate a dwelling or production facility.

But the biggest problem was not even the "backwardness" of science, but the inertia of thinking and the lack of practical experience sufficient to make an informed decision. An example of the former is a call to Drying Racks in Uganda to Deputy of the IV State Duma Count Alexei Orlov-Davydov from Bishop Simeon of Samara and Stavropol in 1913: “Your Excellency, calling upon you God’s grace, I ask you to accept archpastoral notice: on your hereditary ancestral possessions, the projectors of the Samara Technical Society, together with the apostate engineer Krzhizhanovsky, are designing the construction of a dam and a large power plant. Show mercy by your arrival to preserve God's peace in the Zhiguli possessions and destroy sedition in conception. "What kind of demonic machinations overtook the apostate Krzhizhanovsky Yes, in general, nothing special happened - they were developing, including with geodetic reconnaissance of the area, in order to find out the possibilities of using the water resources of the Volga River in the Samarskaya Luka area.

As examples of the second, we can recall how electric lighting was introduced on ships. The first ship in the world to be “completely” (in fact, not all interiors had electric lights) was illuminated by electricity was the British battleship Inflexible. To begin with, the Royal Admiralty approved an interesting composition of lamps for lighting: it consisted of chains of 19 lamps, each of which had one arc lamp and 18 incandescent lamps. But the engineering mind didn't stop there. The lamps were connected in series in a circuit, each with its own switch. Thus, a part of the ship could lose lighting not only due to a burnt out light bulb, but simply because someone did not turn the switch on time. Do you think that the absurdity of the design ended there? No matter how. This circuit was powered by direct current with a voltage of 800 volts, the wires were without insulation, but on insulators. By today's standards, not a ship, but a floating electric chair. Therefore, it is no wonder that he was not only the first ship with electric lighting, but also the first ship to electric kill. However, only his own team.

HMS Inflexible in Portsmouth. Electric lighting was far from the only "original" detail of his design. (Image taken from wikipedia.org)

By the beginning of the 20th century, the number of such tragicomic situations began to decline, but it was still very far from what we now consider electrification. Cases when two or more power plants worked in parallel on the same network did not go beyond the limits of single experiments. The benefits of such work did not seem so obvious, theoretical calculations caused skepticism among those responsible for practical implementation. And besides, there were already quite a few power plants around the world, almost each of which produced its own unique current, which differed both in current-voltage characteristics and in frequency, if it came to alternating current. It was simply impossible to bring them into a single network without reconstructing one or another complexity.

The situation could be saved by the mass market for electrical goods, which would require standardization, but it simply did not exist. The main consumers were industrial enterprises and electric vehicles, which could perfectly exist in isolation from each other and form orders for equipment based on their unique characteristics. After all, serial production, when goods are mass-produced on a unified production line, was also still absent. Therefore, changing the characteristics of the output current for the production of the same generators had almost no effect on the cost of the product.

Changes began during the First World War, which spurred mass production and put the need for economical use of resources at the forefront. In many ways, the industry with which the whole world approached the beginning of the digital age was basically the brainchild of the Great War.

“Electrification. 100 years of the GOELRO plan. The most lamp show

Some things we tend to take for granted. Or even as it has always been. However, they all have their own beginning, which was simply forgotten behind the prescription of years or more significant events. We are accustomed to attribute the availability of electricity in our home to such self-evident facts. Moreover, the vast majority have no idea what is behind the simple phrase "connect to the power grid." Meanwhile, even a hundred years ago, the situation was much more complicated.

For starters, it's a good idea to remember that until the 19th century, the whole world did not use electricity. Yes, one can recall individual experiences, but, in fact, from the time of the pharaohs to Napoleon, who contributed a lot to digging out these same pharaohs from under the millennia-old sands, electricity was nothing more than entertainment for an inquisitive mind at leisure for mankind. The turning point came only in the second half of the 19th century, when the first generators appeared capable of generating electric current on a permanent basis.

Alessandro Volta demonstrates experiments on electricity to the First Consul Bonaparte. The possibility of practical application is clearly visible on the face of Napoleon. (image taken from kunst-fuer-alle.de)

However, this phenomenon was very far from how we now imagine both the power grid and the use of electricity. Let's start with the fact that neither scientific nor practical experience for a long time gave an answer to the question of how to transfer electricity from the producer to the consumer without acceptable losses. Therefore, the first power plants were something like a modern emergency gas generator - they were located next to the facility where this electricity was required. Secondly, it seems from the position of today that electric lighting is a matter of course. At first, illumination was just illumination, and not a natural way to illuminate a dwelling or production facility.

But the biggest problem was not even the "backwardness" of science, but the inertia of thinking and the lack of practical experience sufficient to make an informed decision. As an example of the first, we can cite an appeal to Drying Racks in Uganda to Deputy of the IV State Duma Count Alexei Orlov-Davydov from Bishop Simeon of Samara and Stavropol in 1913: on the estates, the projectors of the Samara Technical Society, together with the apostate engineer Krzhizhanovsky, are designing the construction of a dam and a large power plant. Show mercy with your arrival to preserve God's peace in the Zhiguli possessions and destroy sedition in conception. What kind of demonic machinations overtook the apostate Krzhizhanovsky comrades? Yes, in general, nothing special happened - they were developing, including with geodetic reconnaissance of the area, in order to find out the possibility of using the water resources of the Volga River in the Samarskaya Luka area.

But the biggest problem was not even the "backwardness" of science, but the inertia of thinking and the lack of practical experience sufficient to make an informed decision. As an example of the first, one can refer to Drying Racks in Uganda Drying Racks in Uganda Deputy of the IV State Duma Count Alexei Orlov-Davydov from Bishop Simeon of Samara and Stavropol in 1913: “Your Excellency, invoking God’s grace on you, I ask you to accept the archpastoral notice: on your hereditary ancestral possessions, the projectors of the Samara Technical Society, together with the apostate engineer Krzhizhanovsky, are designing a building dam and a large power plant. Show mercy with your arrival to preserve God's peace in the Zhiguli possessions and destroy sedition in conception. What kind of demonic machinations overtook the apostate Krzhizhanovsky comrades? Yes, in general, nothing special happened - they were developing, including with geodetic reconnaissance of the area, in order to find out the possibility of using the water resources of the Volga River in the Samarskaya Luka area.

As examples of the second, we can recall how electric lighting was introduced on ships. The first ship in the world to be “completely” (in fact, not all interiors had electric lights) was illuminated by electricity was the British battleship Inflexible. To begin with, the Royal Admiralty approved an interesting composition of lamps for lighting: it consisted of chains of 19 lamps, each of which had one arc lamp and 18 incandescent lamps. But the engineering mind didn't stop there. The lamps were connected in series in a circuit, each with its own switch. Thus, a part of the ship could lose lighting not only due to a burnt out light bulb, but simply because someone did not turn the switch on time. Do you think that the absurdity of the design ended there? No matter how. This circuit was powered by direct current with a voltage of 800 volts, the wires were without insulation, but on insulators. By today's standards, not a ship, but a floating electric chair. Therefore, it is no wonder that he was not only the first ship with electric lighting, but also the first ship to electric kill. However, only his own team.

HMS Inflexible at Portsmouth. Electric lighting was far from the only "original" detail of his design. (Image taken from wikipedia.org)

By the beginning of the 20th century, the number of such tragicomic situations began to decline, but it was still very far from what we now consider electrification. Cases when two or more power plants worked in parallel on the same network did not go beyond the limits of single experiments. The benefits of such work did not seem so obvious, theoretical calculations caused skepticism among those responsible for practical implementation. And besides, there were already quite a few power plants around the world, almost each of which produced its own unique current, which differed both in current-voltage characteristics and in frequency, if it came to alternating current. It was simply impossible to bring them into a single network without reconstructing one or another complexity.

The situation could be saved by the mass market for electrical goods, which would require standardization, but it simply did not exist. The main consumers were industrial enterprises and electric vehicles, which could perfectly exist in isolation from each other and form orders for equipment based on their unique characteristics. After all, serial production, when goods are mass-produced on a unified production line, was also still absent. Therefore, changing the characteristics of the output current for the production of the same generators had almost no effect on the cost of the product.

Changes began during the First World War, which spurred mass production and put the need for economical use of resources at the forefront. In many ways, the industry with which the whole world approached the beginning of the digital age was basically the brainchild of the Great War.