#Echo42: new AirPods Pro and how Google surpassed IBM (no)

We continue to pun on Huawei. An amazing thing, not the first such case, but every time drooling and delight, like the first time. Huawei founder Ren Zhengfei was photographed at the airport when the founder's personal iPad was spotted while checking luggage.

Ren Zhengfei has repeatedly said that he sympathizes with Apple products. And his family prefers Apple over Huawei. For example, when the daughter of Mr. Zhengfei was detained in Canada due to dirty political games, they found a MacBook Air and an iPad in her luggage. Mr. Zhengfei can be wished that from communication with Apple technology he would take out a “user experience”, which would then force engineers to actively implement Huawei smartphones. We must take the best from the two systems.

#Echo42: The new AirPods Pro and how Google surpassed IBM (no )

Although the situation is funny in another way. It's amazing that the Huawei CEO's luggage is being checked. It is clear that the laws are the same for everyone, but seriously? I wanted a photo from the inspections of Tim Cook, Elon Musk, and it would be interesting to look at the check of Igor Sechin or the expression on his face when he found out that now the suitcase needs to be shown to the customs officer.

Microsoft and a lot of money

Microsoft has been phenomenal for a quarter in a row, posting double-digit growth. The results of the first quarter of the 2020 financial year are no exception.

#Echo42: The new AirPods Pro and how Google surpassed IBM (no )

#Echo42: The new AirPods Pro and how Google surpassed IBM (no )

  • Microsoft highlighted the line "Xbox money and related services” (Xbox Live and Xbox Game Pass). This is especially interesting (in the future) as Microsoft has begun testing its streaming game project Project xCloud in the US, UK and Korea. Testing is free, prices have not yet been announced either. There are only three games available, Gears 5, Halo 5: Guardians, Killer Instinct and Sea of ​​Thieves.
    For games, any Android gadget older than Android 6 and with Bluetooth 4.0 is suitable. You also need an Xbox One controller. The choice of countries is explained very simply. Microsoft has partnerships with 5G carriers such as SK Telecom in Korea, T-Mobile and Vodafone in the US and UK. On the demo page, it says so in the requirements: Wi-Fi 5 GHz or mobile Internet at least 10 Mbps. Wow, the future has arrived. I don't know about you, but I'm delighted. So far, GFN.ru in Russia is only on computers, but now smartphones have already come into play.Super.
  • Windows 7 is approaching the end of its life cycle. So there will be growth in the next quarter. They will start switching to Windows 10. By the way, perhaps a number of businesses will also start updating their computer park at the same time.
  • Last year, 155 million business users used Office 365 on a paid basis, now there are more than 200 million. "Physicists" are also growing, but more modestly. It was 32.5 million, now it's 35.6 million
  • More and more customers want to use the cloud from Microsoft. The star of Microsoft is Azure. Growth 59%.

The rest of the numbers are also very good. Microsoft is experiencing a renaissance.

The only thing that raises questions is that every Microsoft conference call claims double-digit growth, and every time they get a question about drivers of growth, and every time they can't answer it clearly. The answer is in the style: "It just grows, and we ride the wave." It starts to look like Microsoft is hiding something.

Apple's New AirPods Pro

AirPods are Apple's most popular product today. Headphones are bought not only by iPhone owners. In Russia, even more AirPods have become a fashion accessory. A few days ago, I watched two 14-year-old boys with AirPods in a subway car. Both had Android smartphones. Both phones are in cases, but in terms of screen quality (faded, low resolution), this is something at the cost of 15 thousand maximum. Both had AirPods in their ears, and they did not listen to music, as they constantly communicated with each other, that is, there was no use for the headphones.

#Echo42: The new AirPods Pro and how Google surpassed IBM (no )

Apple decided to use its favorite tactic and introduce an even more expensive version of the successful product, adding the "Pro" postscript. Regular AirPods are still on sale. By the way, this is a great tactic to raise prices, release a new product and not piss off customers. The old product is in place. Please. The new product has a feature that cannot be simply added to the old one. In this case, this is noise reduction and along the way a new design (design is very important! Everyone sees it! It sells!) With more comfortable silicone pads. According to Apple, you now feel the music, not the headphones. Noise cancellation is pure marketing. Let me not explain to you why noise cancellation in earplugs is nonsense. You know. Although, having voiced this idea in a press tour, he received a wave of criticism. Write comments.

Because of the new design and noise reduction function, battery life has been reduced from 5 hours to 4.5 hours.

But the price of the Pro version, of course, has increased - 20,990 rubles.

An interesting fact. Launching headphones, Apple along the way made a compliment to tech bloggers in favor. For the US, the phrase "A chip with serious chops" was used. It's hinted that blogger PewDiePie says "Chip Chop" while chopping trees while playing Minecraft.

In the UK "A chip with serious clout". The phrase can be translated as "A chip that gives a serious crack", that is, powerful. But clout is also a slang word for young people, meaning that you are popular and cool at the same time.

In Russia, the phrase "The most sonorous technologies" was used. It turns out that blogger Wylsacom says the word “vociferously”.

From a marketing point of view, Apple, as always, well done. Fans of bloggers, of course, consider this respect and will rejoice at the Easter egg.

AirPods are still successful and out of reach for competitors. Counterpoint Research claims these are the most successful TWS in the world and the most desired. There are no official figures, but if you count on your knee, it turns out that at the end of 2018 there were about 29 million AirPods users in the world. By the end of 2019, their number will exceed 50 million, as Apple consistently sells more than 10 million per quarter on average.

Apple occupies 60% of the headphone market of this type. Samsung recently came in second place for the first time. This success is partly explained by the fact that Samsung likes to give Galaxy Buds as a gift with the purchase of a flagship, but they are recorded as a sale of the device, not as a gift.

Google quantum superiority (over IBM)

Google's big breakthrough has been published in Nature magazine. For the first time, a group of researchers at Google has achieved what is known as quantum supremacy. Quantum supremacy is the use of a quantum computer to solve problems that a classical computer would take an extremely long time to solve or would not master at all. Let's figure it out?

What is a quantum computer?

A quantum computer is a computer that uses the phenomena of quantum mechanics (superposition and quantum entanglement) to transmit and process data.

Richard Feynman (holding the Nobel Prize in Physics) once said, "If you think you understand quantum mechanics, then you don't understand quantum mechanics." Similarly, quantum computers are based on the fact that in the microcosm everything is not as clear and obvious as we are used to in our everyday macrocosm. Photons and electrons can do things that a normal person does not fit in the head. For example, Petya's electron can be in two places at the same time (both his wife and his mistress), and Edik's photon can have two types of polarity at once. When a person tries to measure an electron, he sees only one of its states, and all other options seem to be absent. But it's not. Simply put, it is impossible to see it, but, quoting "DMB", there is a gopher.

For example, a traditional computer operates with bits, which can only have two values ​​- 1 or 0. A quantum computer uses qubits, that is, quantum bits. Their peculiarity is that, using the phenomenon of superposition, in addition to 1 or 0, they can be both 1 and 0 at the same time. Thus, 2 quantum bits are 4 possible states. And as the number of bits increases, the number of states increases exponentially. The use of qubits means that all kinds of states can be handled at the same time. And this will allow you to solve certain problems much faster and more efficiently than traditional computers. Look at the illustration below, what 3 ordinary bits and 3 quantum qubits look like.

#Echo42: The new AirPods Pro and how Google surpassed IBM (no )

It turns out that to describe all the states of 300 qubits, you need a number that is greater than the number of atoms in the entire visible universe. Accordingly, a classical binary computer, even with a very powerful processor, will take a long time to complete this task.

Another important feature of quantum physics is quantum entanglement. A very accurate name, because everything is confusing and not a damn thing is clear, as they say at the official level. It is she who promises a super breakthrough, since without it a quantum computer is just a very expensive ordinary computer. It's funny, but no one really knows how or why quantum entanglement works. Therefore, it is simply accepted as a fact that it works. Another gopher.

The property of quantum entangled qubits is that they affect each other at the moment when they are accessed. It doesn't matter if the qubits are adjacent or even separated. That is, by the state of qubit A, one can understand the meaning of qubit B "entangled" with it.

Given the foggy state of quantum physics, when there is something that cannot be observed, the problem of a quantum computer can be formulated as the desire to get as much information as possible from the unobservable.

Top is Google's Sycamore processor device. It is shown how 54 qubits (53 active ones) are interconnected. Below is the processor itself

I will give an example of a problem for a quantum computer, invented by Richard Yozha and David Deutsch.

There is a line of 8 people in line to heaven. The Apostle Peter, who works on face control and loves the binary system of calculus, wrote down everyone in the queue in binary code and is engaged in face control.

Numbers Binary numbers
0 000
1 001
2 010
3 011
4 100
5 101
6 110
7 111

Peter reinforces his decision by adding 1 (you go to heaven) or 0 (it's warmer in hell!) to the number of the waiting list. We do not know what decision Peter will make, but if he is cheerful, then he will let everyone in, or if he is dissatisfied, he will let only half go. The task is to determine what mood the apostle Peter is in.

If you solve a problem on a classical computer, you need at least 5 steps. If Peter put 1 on the first waiting list, then you need to check at least 4 more to understand that he is in a good mood. A quantum computer, using quantum entanglement, when it can determine the state of others from one qubit, solves a similar problem. Thus, on the one hand, it is necessary to process a large amount of information, and in response to receive only either “yes” (everyone passes) or “no”, that is, a small amount of information. This is the idea behind quantum computers. Consolidate a huge amount of data into a simple answer.

How does a quantum computer work and why is it needed?

Quantum computers are connections of qubits. Qubits seem to be made from just about anything, from atoms to charged ions, which can be almost anywhere. For example, scientists from Google made a chip from superconducting antennas and put everything in a refrigerator (because it heats up).

It's a lot of fun, if you think about it. Information is loaded into qubits using a magnetic field or a laser. After that, something happens in the qubits under the influence of quantum entanglement, the structure of which no one understands, and then again, using a magnetic field or a laser, the answer is read. In fact, a black box where they throw a question, and then get the answer.

And the funniest thing is that our universe just works at the quantum level. That is why a quantum computer is a small step towards understanding how it works in general.

A quantum computer is not a replacement for a conventional one. It is designed for certain complex tasks where a large number of interactions must be calculated. Most of all, a quantum computer will be useful in tasks such as medicine. He will be able to calculate how the drug will interact with every cell or even molecule of the body. Quantum computers will bring no less benefit to Microsoft and Windows updates, because it will be possible to calculate all the options for the impact of the update on each element of the current system. Imagine a world without Windows or Android glitches? Is this not a reason to rush into the future? And quantum computers will bring endless benefits to artificial intelligence in matters of learning speed.

What does IBM have to do with it?

Joy is not complete when you rejoice just like that. It's even more pleasant to poke an opponent a little. Such a rival was IBM, which is also actively working in the direction of quantum computers. The solution time for a quantum computer with a processor called Google's Sycamore is 200 seconds, but for a classic IBM supercomputer called Summit, which Google has identified as a competitor, it would take 10,000 years. Well, you can not talk about how much energy was saved.

And Summit looks like this:

#Echo42: the new AirPods Pro and how Google surpassed IBM (no )

And Google's Sycamore is like this:

#Echo42: the new AirPods Pro and how Google surpassed IBM (no )

Here's one processor, and here's a bunch of cabinets. That is, everything is clear visually and without words, where is the trash, and where is the future.

IBM, understandably, was very surprised by such brazen comparisons and quickly released a response.

Firstly, they accused Google of being sloppy, saying that they did not set up the computer correctly. This could be forgiven if the Summit supercomputer ran on Windows (there may be nuances), but it uses Red Hat Enterprise Linux. According to IBM, if everything is done correctly, the calculations will take not 10,000 years, but 2.5 days. This, of course, is also a lot, but it gives reason to doubt the quantum superiority of Google.

John Preskill in 2012 suggested that the criterion for quantum superiority is a task that a conventional computer cannot master. And 2.5 days is quite a normal time.

Also, Google's quantum computer is not universal. He can solve only one type of problem, for which he was assembled and experimented. And there are many tasks. Accordingly, it is a little strange to claim victory.

And I'll add on my own that Google conducted a test experiment, simply banishing the quantum problem. That is, so far there is no practical use. And the success of the test does not mean that this computer can be reconfigured and solve something useful on it.

Sandai Pichar on the official Google blog compared the test to launching the first rocket into space. Although, it is probably more appropriate to compare it with the fact that some element from a rocket was brought to the launch pad. Now we need to bring all the other parts, assemble, fill in fuel, and then start.

In general, this news is not important for ordinary computer users, since quantum computers, if they replace classical ones, will probably not even be in the next 50 years. Yes, and based on the logic of the tasks, there is not much sense in this. But I hope that from this note you understand what the computing potential of quantum computers is, and if you did not know before, then you received information about a new type of computer.

#Echo42: new AirPods Pro and how Google surpassed IBM (no)

We continue to pun on Huawei. An amazing thing, not the first such case, but every time drooling and delight, like the first time. Huawei founder Ren Zhengfei was photographed at the airport when the founder's personal iPad was spotted while checking luggage.

Ren Zhengfei has repeatedly said that he sympathizes with Apple products. And his family prefers Apple over Huawei. For example, when the daughter of Mr. Zhengfei was detained in Canada due to dirty political games, they found a MacBook Air and an iPad in her luggage. Mr. Zhengfei can be wished that from communication with Apple technology he would take out a “user experience”, which would then force engineers to more actively implement Huawei smartphones. We must take the best from the two systems.

#Echo42: the new AirPods Pro and how Google surpassed IBM (no )

Although the situation is funny in another way. It's amazing that the Huawei CEO's luggage is being checked. It is clear that the laws are the same for everyone, but seriously? I wanted a photo from the inspections of Tim Cook, Elon Musk, and it would be interesting to look at the check of Igor Sechin or the expression on his face when he found out that now the suitcase needs to be shown to the customs officer.

Microsoft and a lot of money

Microsoft has been phenomenal for a quarter in a row, posting double-digit growth. The results of the first quarter of the 2020 financial year are no exception.

#Echo42: The new AirPods Pro and how Google surpassed IBM (no )

#Echo42: The new AirPods Pro and how Google surpassed IBM (no )

  • Microsoft highlighted the line "Xbox money and related services” (Xbox Live and Xbox Game Pass). This is especially interesting (in the future) as Microsoft has begun testing its streaming game project Project xCloud in the US, UK and Korea. Testing is free, prices have not yet been announced either. There are only three games available, Gears 5, Halo 5: Guardians, Killer Instinct and Sea of ​​Thieves.
    For games, any Android gadget older than Android 6 and with Bluetooth 4.0 is suitable. You also need an Xbox One controller. The choice of countries is explained very simply. Microsoft has partnerships with 5G carriers such as SK Telecom in Korea, T-Mobile and Vodafone in the US and UK. On the demo page, it says so in the requirements: Wi-Fi 5 GHz or mobile Internet at least 10 Mbps. Wow, the future has arrived. I don't know about you, but I'm delighted. So far, GFN.ru in Russia is only on computers, but now smartphones have already come into play. Super.
  • Windows 7 is approaching the end of its life cycle. So there will be growth in the next quarter. They will start switching to Windows 10. By the way, perhaps a number of businesses will also start updating their computer park at the same time.
  • Last year, 155 million business users used Office 365 on a paid basis, now there are more than 200 million. "Physicists" are also growing, but more modestly. It was 32.5 million, now it's 35.6 million
  • More and more customers want to use the cloud from Microsoft. The star of Microsoft is Azure. Growth 59%.

The rest of the numbers are also very good. Microsoft is experiencing a renaissance.

The only thing that raises questions is that every Microsoft conference call claims double-digit growth, and every time they get a question about drivers of growth, and every time they can't answer it clearly. The answer is in the style: "It just grows, and we ride the wave." It starts to look like Microsoft is hiding something.

Apple's New AirPods Pro

AirPods are Apple's most popular product today. Headphones are bought not only by iPhone owners. In Russia, even more AirPods have become a fashion accessory. A few days ago, I watched two 14-year-old boys with AirPods in a subway car. Both had Android smartphones. Both phones are in cases, but in terms of screen quality (faded, low resolution), this is something at the cost of 15 thousand maximum. Both had AirPods in their ears, and they did not listen to music, as they constantly communicated with each other, that is, there was no use for the headphones.

#Echo42: The new AirPods Pro and how Google surpassed IBM (no )

Apple decided to use its favorite tactic and introduce an even more expensive version of the successful product, adding the "Pro" postscript. Regular AirPods are still on sale. By the way, this is a great tactic to raise prices, release a new product and not piss off customers. The old product is in place. Please. The new product has a feature that cannot be simply added to the old one. In this case, this is noise reduction and along the way a new design (design is very important! Everyone sees it! It sells!) With more comfortable silicone pads. According to Apple, you now feel the music, not the headphones. Noise cancellation is pure marketing. Let me not explain to you why noise cancellation in earplugs is nonsense. You know. Although, having voiced this idea in a press tour, he received a wave of criticism. Write comments.

Because of the new design and noise reduction function, battery life has been reduced from 5 hours to 4.5 hours.

But the price of the Pro version, of course, has increased - 20,990 rubles.

An interesting fact. Launching headphones, Apple along the way made a compliment to tech bloggers in favor. For the US, the phrase "A chip with serious chops" was used. It's hinted that blogger PewDiePie says "Chip Chop" while chopping trees while playing Minecraft.

In the UK "A chip with serious clout". The phrase can be translated as "A chip that gives a serious crack", that is, powerful. But clout is also a slang word for young people, meaning that you are popular and cool at the same time.

In Russia, the phrase "The most sonorous technologies" was used. It turns out that blogger Wylsacom says the word “vociferously”.

From a marketing point of view, Apple, as always, well done. Fans of bloggers, of course, consider this respect and will rejoice at the Easter egg.

AirPods are still successful and out of reach for competitors. Counterpoint Research claims these are the most successful TWS in the world and the most desired. There are no official figures, but if you count on your knee, it turns out that at the end of 2018 there were about 29 million AirPods users in the world. By the end of 2019, their number will exceed 50 million, as Apple consistently sells more than 10 million per quarter on average.

Apple occupies 60% of the headphone market of this type. Samsung recently came in second place for the first time. This success is partly explained by the fact that Samsung likes to give Galaxy Buds as a gift with the purchase of a flagship, but they are recorded as a sale of the device, not as a gift.

Google quantum superiority (over IBM)

Google's big breakthrough has been published in Nature magazine. For the first time, a group of researchers at Google has achieved what is known as quantum supremacy. Quantum supremacy is the use of a quantum computer to solve problems that a classical computer would take an extremely long time to solve or would not master at all. Let's figure it out?

What is a quantum computer?

A quantum computer is a computer that uses the phenomena of quantum mechanics (superposition and quantum entanglement) to transmit and process data.

Richard Feynman (holding the Nobel Prize in Physics) once said, "If you think you understand quantum mechanics, then you don't understand quantum mechanics." Similarly, quantum computers are based on the fact that in the microcosm everything is not as clear and obvious as we are used to in our everyday macrocosm. Photons and electrons can do things that a normal person does not fit in the head. For example, Petya's electron can be in two places at the same time (both his wife and his mistress), and Edik's photon can have two types of polarity at once. When a person tries to measure an electron, he sees only one of its states, and all other options seem to be absent. But it's not. Simply put, it is impossible to see it, but, quoting "DMB", there is a gopher.

For example, a traditional computer operates with bits, which can only have two values ​​- 1 or 0. A quantum computer uses qubits, that is, quantum bits. Their peculiarity is that, using the phenomenon of superposition, in addition to 1 or 0, they can be both 1 and 0 at the same time. Thus, 2 quantum bits are 4 possible states. And as the number of bits increases, the number of states increases exponentially. The use of qubits means that all kinds of states can be handled at the same time. And this will allow you to solve certain problems much faster and more efficiently than traditional computers. Look at the illustration below, what 3 ordinary bits and 3 quantum qubits look like.

#Echo42: The new AirPods Pro and how Google surpassed IBM (no )

It turns out that to describe all the states of 300 qubits, you need a number that is greater than the number of atoms in the entire visible universe. Accordingly, a classical binary computer, even with a very powerful processor, will take a long time to complete this task.

Another important feature of quantum physics is quantum entanglement. A very accurate name, because everything is confusing and not a damn thing is clear, as they say at the official level. It is she who promises a super breakthrough, since without it a quantum computer is just a very expensive ordinary computer. It's funny, but no one really knows how or why quantum entanglement works. Therefore, it is simply accepted as a fact that it works. Another gopher.

The property of quantum entangled qubits is that they affect each other at the moment when they are accessed. It doesn't matter if the qubits are adjacent or even separated. That is, by the state of qubit A, one can understand the meaning of qubit B "entangled" with it.

Given the foggy state of quantum physics, when there is something that cannot be observed, the problem of a quantum computer can be formulated as the desire to get as much information as possible from the unobservable.

Top is Google's Sycamore processor device. It is shown how 54 qubits (53 active ones) are interconnected. Below is the processor itself

I will give an example of a problem for a quantum computer, invented by Richard Yozha and David Deutsch.

There is a line of 8 people in line to heaven. The Apostle Peter, who works on face control and loves the binary system of calculus, wrote down everyone in the queue in binary code and is engaged in face control.

Numbers Binary numbers
0 000
1 001
2 010
3 011
4 100
5 101
6 110
7 111

Peter reinforces his decision by adding 1 (you go to heaven) or 0 (it's warmer in hell!) to the number of the waiting list. We do not know what decision Peter will make, but if he is cheerful, then he will let everyone in, or if he is dissatisfied, he will let only half go. The task is to determine what mood the apostle Peter is in.

If you solve a problem on a classical computer, you need at least 5 steps. If Peter put 1 on the first waiting list, then you need to check at least 4 more to understand that he is in a good mood. A quantum computer, using quantum entanglement, when it can determine the state of others from one qubit, solves a similar problem. Thus, on the one hand, it is necessary to process a large amount of information, and in response to receive only either “yes” (everyone passes) or “no”, that is, a small amount of information. This is the idea behind quantum computers. Consolidate a huge amount of data into a simple answer.

How does a quantum computer work and why is it needed?

Quantum computers are connections of qubits. Qubits seem to be made from just about anything, from atoms to charged ions, which can be almost anywhere. For example, scientists from Google made a chip from superconducting antennas and put everything in a refrigerator (because it heats up).

It's a lot of fun, if you think about it. Information is loaded into qubits using a magnetic field or a laser. After that, something happens in the qubits under the influence of quantum entanglement, the structure of which no one understands, and then again, using a magnetic field or a laser, the answer is read. In fact, a black box where they throw a question, and then get the answer.

And the funniest thing is that our universe just works at the quantum level. That is why a quantum computer is a small step towards understanding how it works in general.

A quantum computer is not a replacement for a conventional one. It is designed for certain complex tasks where a large number of interactions must be calculated. Most of all, a quantum computer will be useful in tasks such as medicine. He will be able to calculate how the drug will interact with every cell or even molecule of the body. Quantum computers will bring no less benefit to Microsoft and Windows updates, because it will be possible to calculate all the options for the impact of the update on each element of the current system. Imagine a world without Windows or Android glitches? Is this not a reason to rush into the future? And quantum computers will bring endless benefits to artificial intelligence in matters of learning speed.

What does IBM have to do with it?

Joy is not complete when you rejoice just like that. It's even more pleasant to poke an opponent a little. Such a rival was IBM, which is also actively working in the direction of quantum computers. The solution time for a quantum computer with a processor called Google's Sycamore is 200 seconds, but for a classic IBM supercomputer called Summit, which Google has identified as a competitor, it would take 10,000 years. Well, you can not talk about how much energy was saved.

And Summit looks like this:

#Echo42: the new AirPods Pro and how Google surpassed IBM (no )

And Google's Sycamore is like this:

#Echo42: The new AirPods Pro and how Google surpassed IBM (no )

Here's one processor, and here's a bunch of cabinets. That is, everything is clear visually and without words, where is the trash, and where is the future.

IBM, understandably, was very surprised by such brazen comparisons and quickly released a response.

Firstly, they accused Google of being sloppy, saying that they did not set up the computer correctly. This could be forgiven if the Summit supercomputer ran on Windows (there may be nuances), but it uses Red Hat Enterprise Linux. According to IBM, if everything is done correctly, the calculations will take not 10,000 years, but 2.5 days. This, of course, is also a lot, but it gives reason to doubt the quantum superiority of Google.

John Preskill in 2012 suggested that the criterion for quantum superiority is a task that a conventional computer cannot master. And 2.5 days is quite a normal time.

Also, Google's quantum computer is not universal. He can solve only one type of problem, for which he was assembled and experimented. And there are many tasks. Accordingly, it is a little strange to claim victory.

And I'll add on my own that Google conducted a test experiment, simply banishing the quantum problem. That is, so far there is no practical use. And the success of the test does not mean that this computer can be reconfigured and solve something useful on it.

Sandai Pichar on the official Google blog compared the test to launching the first rocket into space. Although, it is probably more appropriate to compare it with the fact that some element from a rocket was brought to the launch pad. Now we need to bring all the other parts, assemble, fill in fuel, and then start.

In general, this news is not important for ordinary computer users, since quantum computers, if they replace classical ones, will probably not even be in the next 50 years. Yes, and based on the logic of the tasks, there is not much sense in this. But I hope that from this note you understand what the computing potential of quantum computers is, and if you did not know before, then you received information about a new type of computer.

#Echo42: new AirPods Pro and how Google surpassed IBM (no)

We continue to pun on Huawei. An amazing thing, not the first such case, but every time drooling and delight, like the first time. Huawei founder Ren Zhengfei was photographed at the airport when the founder's personal iPad was spotted while checking luggage.

Ren Zhengfei has repeatedly said that he sympathizes with Apple products. And his family prefers Apple over Huawei. For example, when the daughter of Mr. Zhengfei was detained in Canada due to dirty political games, they found a MacBook Air and an iPad in her luggage. Mr. Zhengfei can be wished that from communication with Apple technology he would take out a “user experience”, which would then force engineers to more actively implement Huawei smartphones. We must take the best from the two systems.

#Echo42: the new AirPods Pro and how Google surpassed IBM (no )

Although the situation is funny in another way. It's amazing that the Huawei CEO's luggage is being checked. It is clear that the laws are the same for everyone, but seriously? I wanted a photo from the inspections of Tim Cook, Elon Musk, and it would be interesting to look at the check of Igor Sechin or the expression on his face when he found out that now the suitcase needs to be shown to the customs officer.

Microsoft and a lot of money

Microsoft has been phenomenal for a quarter in a row, posting double-digit growth. The results of the first quarter of the 2020 financial year are no exception.

#Echo42: The new AirPods Pro and how Google surpassed IBM (no )

#Echo42: The new AirPods Pro and how Google surpassed IBM (no )

  • Microsoft highlighted the line "Xbox money and related services” (Xbox Live and Xbox Game Pass). This is especially interesting (in the future) as Microsoft has begun testing its streaming game project Project xCloud in the US, UK and Korea. Testing is free, prices have not yet been announced either. There are only three games available, Gears 5, Halo 5: Guardians, Killer Instinct and Sea of ​​Thieves.
    For games, any Android gadget older than Android 6 and with Bluetooth 4.0 is suitable. You also need an Xbox One controller. The choice of countries is explained very simply. Microsoft has partnerships with 5G carriers such as SK Telecom in Korea, T-Mobile and Vodafone in the US and UK. On the demo page, it says so in the requirements: Wi-Fi 5 GHz or mobile Internet at least 10 Mbps. Wow, the future has arrived. I don't know about you, but I'm delighted. So far, GFN.ru in Russia is only on computers, but now smartphones have already come into play. Super.
  • Windows 7 is approaching the end of its life cycle. So there will be growth in the next quarter. They will start switching to Windows 10. By the way, perhaps a number of businesses will also start updating their computer park at the same time.
  • Last year, 155 million business users used Office 365 on a paid basis, now there are more than 200 million. "Physicists" are also growing, but more modestly. It was 32.5 million, now it's 35.6 million
  • More and more customers want to use the cloud from Microsoft. The star of Microsoft is Azure. Growth 59%.

The rest of the numbers are also very good. Microsoft is experiencing a renaissance.

The only thing that raises questions is that every Microsoft conference call claims double-digit growth, and every time they get a question about drivers of growth, and every time they can't answer it clearly. The answer is in the style: "It just grows, and we ride the wave." It starts to look like Microsoft is hiding something.

Apple's New AirPods Pro

AirPods are Apple's most popular product today. Headphones are bought not only by iPhone owners. In Russia, even more AirPods have become a fashion accessory. A few days ago, I watched two 14-year-old boys with AirPods in a subway car. Both had Android smartphones. Both phones are in cases, but in terms of screen quality (faded, low resolution), this is something at the cost of 15 thousand maximum. Both had AirPods in their ears, and they did not listen to music, as they constantly communicated with each other, that is, there was no use for the headphones.

#Echo42: The new AirPods Pro and how Google surpassed IBM (no )

Apple decided to use its favorite tactic and introduce an even more expensive version of the successful product, adding the "Pro" postscript. Regular AirPods are still on sale. By the way, this is a great tactic to raise prices, release a new product and not piss off customers. The old product is in place. Please. The new product has a feature that cannot be simply added to the old one. In this case, this is noise reduction and along the way a new design (design is very important! Everyone sees it! It sells!) With more comfortable silicone pads. According to Apple, you now feel the music, not the headphones. Noise cancellation is pure marketing. Let me not explain to you why noise cancellation in earplugs is nonsense. You know. Although, having voiced this idea in a press tour, he received a wave of criticism. Write comments.

Because of the new design and noise reduction function, battery life has been reduced from 5 hours to 4.5 hours.

But the price of the Pro version, of course, has increased - 20,990 rubles.

An interesting fact. Launching headphones, Apple along the way made a compliment to tech bloggers in favor. For the US, the phrase "A chip with serious chops" was used. It's hinted that blogger PewDiePie says "Chip Chop" while chopping trees while playing Minecraft.

In the UK "A chip with serious clout". The phrase can be translated as "A chip that gives a serious crack", that is, powerful. But clout is also a slang word for young people, meaning that you are popular and cool at the same time.

In Russia, the phrase "The most sonorous technologies" was used. It turns out that blogger Wylsacom says the word “vociferously”.

From a marketing point of view, Apple, as always, well done. Fans of bloggers, of course, consider this respect and will rejoice at the Easter egg.

AirPods are still successful and out of reach for competitors. Counterpoint Research claims that these are the most successful TWS in the world and the most desired. There are no official figures, but if you count on your knee, it turns out that at the end of 2018 there were about 29 million AirPods users in the world. By the end of 2019, their number will exceed 50 million, as Apple consistently sells more than 10 million per quarter on average.

Apple occupies 60% of the headphone market of this type. Samsung recently came in second place for the first time. This success is partly explained by the fact that Samsung likes to give Galaxy Buds as a gift with the purchase of a flagship, but they are recorded as a sale of the device, not as a gift.

Google quantum superiority (over IBM)

Google's big breakthrough has been published in Nature magazine. For the first time, a group of researchers at Google has achieved what is known as quantum supremacy. Quantum supremacy is the use of a quantum computer to solve problems that a classical computer would take an extremely long time to solve or would not master at all. Let's figure it out?

What is a quantum computer?

A quantum computer is a computer that uses the phenomena of quantum mechanics (superposition and quantum entanglement) to transmit and process data.

Richard Feynman (holding the Nobel Prize in Physics) once said, "If you think you understand quantum mechanics, then you don't understand quantum mechanics." Similarly, quantum computers are based on the fact that in the microcosm everything is not as clear and obvious as we are used to in our everyday macrocosm. Photons and electrons can do things that a normal person does not fit in the head. For example, Petya's electron can be in two places at the same time (both his wife and his mistress), and Edik's photon can have two types of polarity at once. When a person tries to measure an electron, he sees only one of its states, and all other options seem to be absent. But it's not. Simply put, it is impossible to see it, but, quoting "DMB", there is a gopher.

For example, a traditional computer operates with bits, which can only have two values ​​- 1 or 0. A quantum computer uses qubits, that is, quantum bits. Their peculiarity is that, using the phenomenon of superposition, in addition to 1 or 0, they can be both 1 and 0 at the same time. Thus, 2 quantum bits are 4 possible states. And as the number of bits increases, the number of states increases exponentially. The use of qubits means that all kinds of states can be handled at the same time. And this will allow you to solve certain problems much faster and more efficiently than traditional computers. Look at the illustration below, what 3 ordinary bits and 3 quantum qubits look like.

#Echo42: The new AirPods Pro and how Google surpassed IBM (no )

It turns out that to describe all the states of 300 qubits, you need a number that is greater than the number of atoms in the entire visible universe. Accordingly, a classical binary computer, even with a very powerful processor, will take a long time to complete this task.

Another important feature of quantum physics is quantum entanglement. A very accurate name, because everything is confusing and not a damn thing is clear, as they say at the official level. It is she who promises a super breakthrough, since without it a quantum computer is just a very expensive ordinary computer. It's funny, but no one really knows how or why quantum entanglement works. Therefore, it is simply accepted as a fact that it works. Another gopher.

The property of quantum entangled qubits is that they affect each other at the moment when they are accessed. It doesn't matter if the qubits are adjacent or even separated. That is, by the state of qubit A, one can understand the meaning of qubit B "entangled" with it.

Given the foggy state of quantum physics, when there is something that cannot be observed, the problem of a quantum computer can be formulated as the desire to get as much information as possible from the unobservable.

Top is Google's Sycamore processor device. It is shown how 54 qubits (53 active ones) are interconnected. Below is the processor itself

I will give an example of a problem for a quantum computer, invented by Richard Yozha and David Deutsch.

There is a line of 8 people in line to heaven. The Apostle Peter, who works on face control and loves the binary system of calculus, wrote down everyone in the queue in binary code and is engaged in face control.

Numbers Binary numbers
0 000
1 001
2 010
3 011
4 100
5 101
6 110
7 111

Peter reinforces his decision by adding 1 (you go to heaven) or 0 (it's warmer in hell!) to the number of the waiting list. We do not know what decision Peter will make, but if he is cheerful, then he will let everyone in, or if he is dissatisfied, he will let only half go. The task is to determine what mood the apostle Peter is in.

If you solve a problem on a classical computer, you need at least 5 steps. If Peter put 1 on the first waiting list, then you need to check at least 4 more to understand that he is in a good mood. A quantum computer, using quantum entanglement, when it can determine the state of others from one qubit, solves a similar problem. Thus, on the one hand, it is necessary to process a large amount of information, and in response to receive only either “yes” (everyone passes) or “no”, that is, a small amount of information. This is the idea behind quantum computers. Consolidate a huge amount of data into a simple answer.

How does a quantum computer work and why is it needed?

Quantum computers are connections of qubits. Qubits seem to be made from just about anything, from atoms to charged ions, which can be almost anywhere. For example, scientists from Google made a chip from superconducting antennas and put everything in a refrigerator (because it heats up).

It's a lot of fun, if you think about it. Information is loaded into qubits using a magnetic field or a laser. After that, something happens in the qubits under the influence of quantum entanglement, the structure of which no one understands, and then again, using a magnetic field or a laser, the answer is read. In fact, a black box where they throw a question, and then get the answer.

And the funniest thing is that our universe just works at the quantum level. That is why a quantum computer is a small step towards understanding how it works in general.

A quantum computer is not a replacement for a conventional one. It is designed for certain complex tasks where a large number of interactions must be calculated. Most of all, a quantum computer will be useful in tasks such as medicine. He will be able to calculate how the drug will interact with every cell or even molecule of the body. Quantum computers will bring no less benefit to Microsoft and Windows updates, because it will be possible to calculate all the options for the impact of the update on each element of the current system. Imagine a world without Windows or Android glitches? Is this not a reason to rush into the future? And quantum computers will bring endless benefits to artificial intelligence in matters of learning speed.

What does IBM have to do with it?

Joy is not complete when you rejoice just like that. It's even more pleasant to poke an opponent a little. Such a rival was IBM, which is also actively working in the direction of quantum computers. The solution time for a quantum computer with a processor called Google's Sycamore is 200 seconds, but for a classic IBM supercomputer called Summit, which Google has identified as a competitor, it would take 10,000 years. Well, you can not talk about how much energy was saved.

And Summit looks like this:

#Echo42: the new AirPods Pro and how Google surpassed IBM (no )

And Google's Sycamore is like this:

#Echo42: The new AirPods Pro and how Google surpassed IBM (no )

Here's one processor, and here's a bunch of cabinets. That is, everything is clear visually and without words, where is the trash, and where is the future.

IBM, understandably, was very surprised by such brazen comparisons and quickly released a response.

Firstly, they accused Google of being sloppy, saying that they did not set up the computer correctly. This could be forgiven if the Summit supercomputer ran on Windows (there may be nuances), but it uses Red Hat Enterprise Linux. According to IBM, if everything is done correctly, the calculations will take not 10,000 years, but 2.5 days. This, of course, is also a lot, but it gives reason to doubt the quantum superiority of Google.

John Preskill in 2012 suggested that the criterion for quantum superiority is a task that a conventional computer cannot master. And 2.5 days is quite a normal time.

Also, Google's quantum computer is not universal. He can solve only one type of problem, for which he was assembled and experimented. And there are many tasks. Accordingly, it is a little strange to claim victory.

And I'll add on my own that Google conducted a test experiment, simply banishing the quantum problem. That is, so far there is no practical use. And the success of the test does not mean that this computer can be reconfigured and solve something useful on it.

Sandai Pichar on the official Google blog compared the test to launching the first rocket into space. Although, it is probably more appropriate to compare it with the fact that some element from a rocket was brought to the launch pad. Now we need to bring all the other parts, assemble, fill in fuel, and then start.

In general, this news is not important for ordinary computer users, since quantum computers, if they replace classical ones, will probably not even be in the next 50 years. Yes, and based on the logic of the tasks, there is not much sense in this. But I hope that from this note you understand what the computing potential of quantum computers is, and if you did not know before, then you received information about a new type of computer.

#Echo42: new AirPods Pro and how Google surpassed IBM (no)

We continue to pun on Huawei. An amazing thing, not the first such case, but every time drooling and delight, like the first time. Huawei founder Ren Zhengfei was photographed at the airport when the founder's personal iPad was spotted while checking luggage.

Ren Zhengfei has repeatedly said that he sympathizes with Apple products. And his family prefers Apple over Huawei. For example, when the daughter of Mr. Zhengfei was detained in Canada due to dirty political games, they found a MacBook Air and an iPad in her luggage. Mr. Zhengfei can be wished that from communication with Apple technology he would take out a “user experience”, which would then force engineers to actively implement Huawei smartphones. We must take the best from the two systems.

Although the situation is funny in another way. It's amazing that the Huawei CEO's luggage is being checked. It is clear that the laws are the same for everyone, but seriously? I wanted a photo from the inspections of Tim Cook, Elon Musk, and it would be interesting to look at the check of Igor Sechin or the expression on his face when he found out that now the suitcase needs to be shown to the customs officer.

Microsoft and a lot of money

Microsoft has been phenomenal for a quarter in a row, posting double-digit growth. The results of the first quarter of the 2020 financial year are no exception.

  • Microsoft has highlighted a separate line in ውፍረት መቀነሻ ሻይ for "Xbox money and related services" (Xbox Live and Xbox Game Pass). This is especially interesting (in the future) as Microsoft has begun testing its streaming game project Project xCloud in the US, UK and Korea. Testing is free, prices have not yet been announced either. There are only three games available, Gears 5, Halo 5: Guardians, Killer Instinct and Sea of ​​Thieves. Any Android gadget older than Android 6 and with Bluetooth 4.0 is suitable for games. You also need an Xbox One controller. The choice of countries is explained very simply.Microsoft has partnerships with 5G carriers such as SK Telecom in Korea, T-Mobile and Vodafone in the US and UK. On the demo page, it says so in the requirements: Wi-Fi 5 GHz or mobile Internet at least 10 Mbps. Wow, the future has arrived. I don't know about you, but I'm delighted. So far, GFN.ru in Russia is only on computers, but now smartphones have already come into play. Great.
  • Windows 7 is approaching the end of its life cycle. So there will be growth in the next quarter. They will start switching to Windows 10. By the way, perhaps a number of businesses will also start updating their computer park at the same time.
  • Last year, 155 million business users used Office 365 on a paid basis, now there are more than 200 million. "Physicists" are also growing, but more modestly. It was 32.5 million, now it's 35.6 million
  • More and more customers want to use the cloud from Microsoft. The star of Microsoft is Azure. Growth 59%.
  • Microsoft highlighted the line "Xbox money and related services” (Xbox Live and Xbox Game Pass). This is especially interesting (in the future) as Microsoft has begun testing its streaming game project Project xCloud in the US, UK and Korea. Testing is free, prices have not yet been announced either. There are only three games available, Gears 5, Halo 5: Guardians, Killer Instinct and Sea of ​​Thieves.
    For games, any Android gadget older than Android 6 and with Bluetooth 4.0 is suitable. You also need an Xbox One controller. The choice of countries is explained very simply. Microsoft has partnerships with 5G carriers such as SK Telecom in Korea, T-Mobile and Vodafone in the US and UK. On the demo page, it says so in the requirements: Wi-Fi 5 GHz or mobile Internet at least 10 Mbps. Wow, the future has arrived. I don't know about you, but I'm delighted. So far, GFN.ru in Russia is only on computers, but now smartphones have already come into play. Super.
  • Microsoft allocated to ውፍረት መቀነሻ ሻይ ውፍረት መቀነሻ ሻይ a separate line for "Xbox money and related services" (Xbox Live and Xbox Game Pass). This is especially interesting (in the future) as Microsoft has begun testing its streaming game project Project xCloud in the US, UK and Korea. Testing is free, prices have not yet been announced either. There are only three games available, Gears 5, Halo 5: Guardians, Killer Instinct and Sea of ​​Thieves.
    Any Android gadget older than Android 6 and with Bluetooth 4.0 is suitable for games. You also need an Xbox One controller. The choice of countries is explained very simply. Microsoft has partnerships with 5G carriers such as SK Telecom in Korea, T-Mobile and Vodafone in the US and UK. On the demo page, it says so in the requirements: Wi-Fi 5 GHz or mobile Internet at least 10 Mbps. Wow, the future has arrived. I don't know about you, but I'm delighted. So far, GFN.ru in Russia is only on computers, but now smartphones have already come into play. Super.
  • Windows 7 is approaching the end of its life cycle. So there will be growth in the next quarter. They will start switching to Windows 10. By the way, perhaps a number of businesses will also start updating their computer park at the same time.
  • Last year, 155 million business users used Office 365 on a paid basis, now there are more than 200 million. "Physicists" are also growing, but more modestly. It was 32.5 million, now it's 35.6 million
  • More and more customers want to use the cloud from Microsoft. The star of Microsoft is Azure. Growth 59%.
  • The rest of the numbers are also very good. Microsoft is experiencing a renaissance.

    The only thing that raises questions is that every Microsoft conference call claims double-digit growth, and every time they get a question about drivers of growth, and every time they can't answer it clearly. The answer is in the style: "It just grows, and we ride the wave." It starts to look like Microsoft is hiding something.

    Apple's New AirPods Pro

    AirPods are Apple's most popular product today. Headphones are bought not only by iPhone owners. In Russia, even more AirPods have become a fashion accessory. A few days ago, I watched two 14-year-old boys with AirPods in a subway car. Both had Android smartphones. Both phones are in cases, but in terms of screen quality (faded, low resolution), this is something at the cost of 15 thousand maximum. Both had AirPods in their ears, and they did not listen to music, as they constantly communicated with each other, that is, there was no use for the headphones.

    Apple decided to use its favorite tactic and introduce an even more expensive version of the successful product, adding the "Pro" postscript. Regular AirPods are still on sale. By the way, this is a great tactic to raise prices, release a new product and not piss off customers. The old product is in place. Please. The new product has a feature that cannot be simply added to the old one. In this case, this is noise reduction and along the way a new design (design is very important! Everyone sees it! It sells!) With more comfortable silicone pads. According to Apple, you now feel the music, not the headphones. Noise cancellation is pure marketing. Let me not explain to you why noise cancellation in earplugs is nonsense. You know. Although, having voiced this idea in a press tour, he received a wave of criticism. Write comments.

    Because of the new design and noise reduction function, battery life has been reduced from 5 hours to 4.5 hours.

    But the price of the Pro version, of course, has increased - 20,990 rubles.

    An interesting fact. Launching headphones, Apple along the way made a compliment to tech bloggers in favor. For the US, the phrase "A chip with serious chops" was used. It's hinted that blogger PewDiePie says "Chip Chop" while chopping trees while playing Minecraft.

    In the UK "A chip with serious clout". The phrase can be translated as "A chip that gives a serious crack", that is, powerful. But clout is also a slang word for young people, meaning that you are popular and cool at the same time.

    In Russia, the phrase "The most sonorous technologies" was used. It turns out that blogger Wylsacom says the word “vociferously”.

    From a marketing point of view, Apple, as always, well done. Fans of bloggers, of course, consider this respect and will rejoice at the Easter egg.

    AirPods are still successful and out of reach for competitors. Counterpoint Research claims these are the most successful TWS in the world and the most desired. There are no official figures, but if you count on your knee, it turns out that at the end of 2018 there were about 29 million AirPods users in the world. By the end of 2019, their number will exceed 50 million, as Apple consistently sells more than 10 million per quarter on average.

    Apple occupies 60% of the headphone market of this type. Samsung recently came in second place for the first time. This success is partly explained by the fact that Samsung likes to give Galaxy Buds as a gift with the purchase of a flagship, but they are recorded as a sale of the device, not as a gift.

    Google quantum superiority (over IBM)

    Google's big breakthrough has been published in Nature magazine. For the first time, a group of researchers at Google has achieved what is known as quantum supremacy. Quantum supremacy is the use of a quantum computer to solve problems that a classical computer would take an extremely long time to solve or would not master at all. Let's figure it out?

    What is a quantum computer?

    A quantum computer is a computer that uses the phenomena of quantum mechanics (superposition and quantum entanglement) to transmit and process data.

    Richard Feynman (holding the Nobel Prize in Physics) once said, "If you think you understand quantum mechanics, then you don't understand quantum mechanics." Similarly, quantum computers are based on the fact that in the microcosm everything is not as clear and obvious as we are used to in our everyday macrocosm. Photons and electrons can do things that a normal person does not fit into his head. For example, Petya's electron can be in two places at the same time (both his wife and his mistress), and Edik's photon can have two types of polarity at once. When a person tries to measure an electron, he sees only one of its states, and all other options seem to be absent. But it's not. Simply put, it is impossible to see it, but, quoting "DMB", there is a gopher.

    For example, a traditional computer operates with bits, which can only have two values ​​- 1 or 0. A quantum computer uses qubits, that is, quantum bits. Their peculiarity is that, using the phenomenon of superposition, in addition to 1 or 0, they can be both 1 and 0 at the same time. Thus, 2 quantum bits are 4 possible states. And as the number of bits increases, the number of states increases exponentially. The use of qubits means that all kinds of states can be handled at the same time. And this will allow you to solve certain problems much faster and more efficiently than traditional computers. Look at the illustration below, what 3 ordinary bits and 3 quantum qubits look like.

    It turns out that to describe all the states of 300 qubits, you need a number that is greater than the number of atoms in the entire visible universe. Accordingly, a classical binary computer, even with a very powerful processor, will take a long time to complete this task.

    Another important feature of quantum physics is quantum entanglement. A very accurate name, because everything is confusing and not a damn thing is clear, as they say at the official level. It is she who promises a super breakthrough, since without it a quantum computer is just a very expensive ordinary computer. It's funny, but no one really knows how or why quantum entanglement works. Therefore, it is simply accepted as a fact that it works. Another gopher.

    The property of quantum entangled qubits is that they affect each other at the moment when they are accessed. It doesn't matter if the qubits are adjacent or even separated. That is, by the state of qubit A, one can understand the meaning of qubit B "entangled" with it.

    Given the foggy state of quantum physics, when there is something that cannot be observed, the problem of a quantum computer can be formulated as the desire to get as much information as possible from the unobservable.

    Top is Google's Sycamore processor device. It is shown how 54 qubits (53 active ones) are interconnected. Below is the processor itself

    I will give an example of a problem for a quantum computer, invented by Richard Yozha and David Deutsch.

    There is a line of 8 people in line to heaven. The Apostle Peter, who works on face control and loves the binary system of calculus, wrote down everyone in the queue in binary code and is engaged in face control.

    Numbers Binary numbers 0 000 1 001 2 010 3 011 4 100 5 101 6 110 7 111

    Peter reinforces his decision by adding 1 (you go to heaven) or 0 (it's warmer in hell!) to the number of the waiting list. We do not know what decision Peter will make, but if he is cheerful, then he will let everyone in, or if he is dissatisfied, he will let only half go. The task is to determine what mood the apostle Peter is in.

    If you solve a problem on a classical computer, you need at least 5 steps. If Peter put 1 on the first waiting list, then you need to check at least 4 more to understand that he is in a good mood. A quantum computer, using quantum entanglement, when it can determine the state of others from one qubit, solves a similar problem. Thus, on the one hand, it is necessary to process a large amount of information, and in response to receive only either “yes” (everyone passes) or “no”, that is, a small amount of information. This is the idea behind quantum computers. Consolidate a huge amount of data into a simple answer.

    How does a quantum computer work and why is it needed?

    Quantum computers are connections of qubits. Qubits seem to be made from just about anything, from atoms to charged ions, which can be almost anywhere. For example, scientists from Google made a chip from superconducting antennas and put everything in a refrigerator (because it heats up).

    It's a lot of fun, if you think about it. Information is loaded into qubits using a magnetic field or a laser. After that, something happens in the qubits under the influence of quantum entanglement, the structure of which no one understands, and then again, using a magnetic field or a laser, the answer is read. In fact, a black box where they throw a question, and then get the answer.

    And the funniest thing is that our universe just works at the quantum level. That is why a quantum computer is a small step towards understanding how it all works.

    A quantum computer is not a replacement for a conventional one. It is designed for certain complex tasks where a large number of interactions must be calculated. Most of all, a quantum computer will be useful in tasks such as medicine. He will be able to calculate how the drug will interact with every cell or even molecule of the body. Quantum computers will bring no less benefit to Microsoft and Windows updates, because it will be possible to calculate all the options for the impact of the update on each element of the current system. Imagine a world without Windows or Android glitches? Is this not a reason to rush into the future? And quantum computers will bring endless benefits to artificial intelligence in matters of learning speed.

    What does IBM have to do with it?

    Joy is not complete when you rejoice just like that. It's even more pleasant to poke an opponent a little. Such a rival was IBM, which is also actively working in the direction of quantum computers. The solution time for a quantum computer with a processor called Google's Sycamore is 200 seconds, but for a classic IBM supercomputer called Summit, which Google has identified as a competitor, it would take 10,000 years. Well, you can not talk about how much energy was saved.

    And Summit looks like this:

    And Google's Sycamore is like this:

    Here's one processor, and here's a bunch of cabinets. That is, everything is clear visually and without words, where is the trash, and where is the future.

    IBM, understandably, was very surprised by such brazen comparisons and quickly released a response.

    Firstly, they accused Google of being sloppy, saying that they did not set up the computer correctly. This could be forgiven if the Summit supercomputer ran on Windows (there may be nuances), but it uses Red Hat Enterprise Linux. According to IBM, if everything is done correctly, the calculations will take not 10,000 years, but 2.5 days. This, of course, is also a lot, but it gives reason to doubt the quantum superiority of Google.

    John Preskill in 2012 suggested that the criterion for quantum superiority is a task that a conventional computer cannot master. And 2.5 days is quite a normal time.

    Also, Google's quantum computer is not universal. He can solve only one type of problem, for which he was assembled and experimented. And there are many tasks. Accordingly, it is a little strange to claim victory.

    And I'll add on my own that Google conducted a test experiment, simply banishing the quantum problem. That is, so far there is no practical use. And the success of the test does not mean that this computer can be reconfigured and solve something useful on it.

    Sandai Pichar on the official Google blog compared the test to launching the first rocket into space. Although, it is probably more appropriate to compare it with the fact that some element from a rocket was brought to the launch pad. Now we need to bring all the other parts, assemble, fill in fuel, and then start.

    In general, this news is not important for ordinary computer users, since quantum computers, if they replace classical ones, will probably not even be in the next 50 years. Yes, and based on the logic of the tasks, there is not much sense in this. But I hope that from this note you understand what the computing potential of quantum computers is, and if you did not know before, then you received information about a new type of computer.