#Echo116: Intel's plan to defeat everyone

Samsung is fiercely protective of its flagship lineup. Reduced price at the start (compared to last year), aggressive discounts and promotions already a month after the start of sales (in the US market). Analysts are talking about a tripling of sales in the US and +30% in South Korea. In general, against the backdrop of the S20 that failed in sales, nothing surprising.

However, while preparing a selection of TV shows for April, I noticed one more piece of news. Samsung has agreed with streaming service Hulu that the latter will host a show called "Exposure" for Samsung, in which people will compete to be the best mobile photographer in the US. On the air since April 26. To be honest, I'm curious to see what happens. Creating an interesting show, from which advertising ears do not stick out, is not an easy task.

BlackBerry 5G

A couple of times I received a question in the mail about how my BlackBerry Key2 is doing. He's doing great. It lies on the leg of the monitor, and the third SIM card is used in it (when it is not occupied in test smartphones), and I still automatically pick it up when I answer mail from a smartphone, I like the feeling of typing on a physical keyboard.

Back in mid-February, there was news that in the next few months OnwardMobility (a new contender for the revival of the brand that bought a license from the original BlackBerry, which is now very successful in software solutions) will tell about a new smartphone.

So far, silence, but there are certain rumors.

The smartphone will definitely have a physical keyboard, and it will support 5G. Separately, the company noted that additional control over the reliability of not only software, but also the entire supply chain with an eye to the highest levels of security (state level. The company's CEO promised an "ultra-secure" device.

It's all a bit disturbing. It seems that they will release an ultra-expensive device on not the newest hardware (because security and proven solutions are needed), which they will try to sell to officials. However, I suspect that due to the current shortage in the markets, production with announcements will be postponed.

What do you think? Is there room for a smartphone with a physical keyboard in 2021-22?

ARM Vision Day: new Armv9 architecture

Why is there so much talk about ARM chipsets lately?

Thanks to Apple and Nvidia for popularizing Arm Holdings. A couple of years ago, the company was rarely mentioned. Everyone knew about Qualcomm, MediaTek or Exynos. But Arm Holdings remained in the shadows, as it does not work with end users, but designs chipsets and sells licenses to use the ARM architecture. Pay attention to the spelling. If all capital letters, then we are talking about chipsets, if there are lowercase letters, then about the company.

Recently Arm has become a buzzword for two categories of reasons.

First, this is a media agenda.

First, Apple released the MacBook on an ARM chipset. And when Apple does something, whether you like it or not, you still find out how Intel differs from ARM. Along the way, Nvidia thought about buying Arm Holding, which made the whole market so excited that it reached the inhabitants.

The second category of reasons for popularity is the combination of availability and performance in certain tasks, and therefore the promise of ARM processors.

The fact that any company has the opportunity to buy a license from Arm Holdings and create its own processor is also a promising factor for ARM chipsets. For example, Amazon is known not only for the fact that its employees are so busy with work that they are forced to seep into a bottle, but also for the development of their own AWS Graviton processor on ARM architecture (already the second generation). This is a specialized processor for the company's cloud services (Amazon is one of the largest cloud computing providers in the world). Guess which processor vendor has been replaced by Amazon's own designs?

Amazon claims that its home processor is up to 7 times faster and 40% more cost effective than x86 solutions. In this case, we are talking about tasks related to machine learning, application servers, high-performance computing, video processing and working with databases.

For example, if we take the current rating of Top 500 supercomputers, then for the time being it consisted of 64-bit processors from Intel using the x86 architecture. Less than 5% were occupied by supercomputers on processors from AMD, there were still 13 computers on processors from IBM and only 3 supercomputers on ARM. In mid-2020, the Japanese Fugaku supercomputer debuted, not only taking first place in all supercomputer ratings, but showing performance that surpasses the combined power of the 5 supercomputers following it.

In fact, Amazon's advertising booklet is the main reason for the popularity - 7 times faster and 40% more profitable in terms of price / performance.

What are the benefits of the new Armv9 architecture?

I would like to say that the 9th version is an architecture that is more in line with modern trends, since the main emphasis was placed on:

  1. Artificial intelligence. AI, machine learning are hot and promising topics. This area includes autonomous cars, virtual and augmented realities, data processing.
  2. DSP features that I think will become noticeable first of all: photo, video and audio processing (+ speech recognition) on the fly. We all already love talking to assistants, using assistants as chatbots, taking photos, upscaling videos to 8K. And VR porn, according to Pornhub, has shot into the sky during the pandemic.
  3. Improved security.

Let's talk about the last point in a little more detail, since, in my opinion, it is the most mystically interesting (and incomprehensible).

Arm is about to rethink the current security of processors. The system now assumes that higher-level software can "see" the operation of lower-level software. Conventionally, the management system is like in life, when the director can poke his nose into any department and there are no secrets from him. And if the director is an eccentric, then he can spoil the blood of everyone, or even ruin the company.

Arm Holdings' idea is called Confidential Compute Architecture, or CCA. The bottom line is that for each task / group of tasks, so-called realms (realities), or, in simple terms, opaque containers, will be created, and even the OS will not see what is happening there. It's cool if the OS is infected and is a source of information leakage. That is, it turns out that everyone works as if together, but absolutely independent of each other. If you enter data in any application, then you do not need to be afraid that the OS will recognize them, remember them and merge them. This can be useful, for example, in applications where you need to specify a bank card. The feature will also be appreciated by large corporations, which, relatively speaking, will not have to worry if their employee has picked up a virus on ... (I wanted to say “on a porn site”, but I thought it was already outdated ... where can I find a virus now? Download something from a torrent?).

#Echo116: Intel's plan to beat everyone #Echo116: Intel plan like defeat everyone

More details and examples will be provided by Arm in June.

Why is the new architecture important?

Once a year, Arm Holdings presents its developments, which are then licensed from it by other companies. Accordingly, if you want to know what the next Qualcomm chipset will be, which is usually announced in December, then you need to watch the Arm presentation - Arm TechDay. This case, frankly, is terribly boring, as it is designed for business consumers. Apparently, for this reason, not the slightest attempt is made to somehow entertain the people.

#Echo116: Intel's plan to beat everyone

The past 10 years since the introduction of the Armv8 architecture in 2011, everything has been good and consistently predictable. At a relatively private event dominated by analysts, they showed a presentation and talked about the performance gains from the previous version - new cores, new graphics, new AI capabilities and how it will affect smartphones.

As you know, once a generation there is a Mortal Kombat tournament, and once every 10 years, Arm updates the architecture. The event was called Vision Day, because it is about the vision of the future. I think to make it easier to understand the importance of what is happening, you can compare the new architecture of ARM processors with a new communication standard, for example, with the transition from 4G to 5G. Although, given that there were no such significant changes as in the transition from Armv7 to v8, it is more accurate to compare with the transition from 3G to 4G.

Accordingly, Arm Holdings is faced with a roughly similar problem - how to drag everyone to the new architecture. Everyone understands that 4G / 5G is better, but the transition will take time, effort and resources, so it is clear that the market will be a mixed period in the next couple of years.

To conclude, it's worth noting that Arm has said the mantra that with the new architecture, any OS on any ARM hardware will be able to receive "decades" of security updates if the developer wants to.

#Echo116: Intel's plan to beat everyone

This, by the way, should help solve Qualcomm and Google's current problem with a short (compared to Apple) device support cycle. Not everyone understands this point Art Shop (Fisam Arts, but updating Android versions is not only the business of Google or, say, Xiaomi.An important role in this process is also played by the chipset manufacturer, for example, Qualcomm.Accordingly, Qualcomm should participate not only in the release of smartphones on Android 10 or Android 11, but also to contribute if smartphones are going to upgrade from version 10 to version 11. The fact is that Android is updated entirely, affecting everything: the OS itself, processor drivers, modem, cameras, and in the end, you remember, also all applications are updated.

Last year, Google introduced Project Treble, which was supposed to separate the system into layers and thus simplify updates, as there would be low-level layers (processor, modem, etc.) that would not be affected by the update. Arm decided to help everyone this year by implementing Arm SystemReady.

#Echo116: Intel's plan to beat everyone

Intel: someone has a new architecture, and someone has old problems

Gelsinger's speech

Speaking about the new ARM architecture, one cannot but mention Intel. The company is really having a hard time, as the situation is getting worse every day.

First, Apple dealt a sneaky blow with the transition to ARM chipsets in macbooks, then Nvidia at the presentation emphasized that the 30th GeForce series works great in conjunction with AMD processors, and now here is the new Armv9 architecture with regular exhortations about omnipresence and 100% security.

However, as you remember, Intel is not sitting idly by. The company recently had a new CEO, Pat Gelsinger (formerly at Intel and behind the development of the Intel 80486 processor, then left and is now back).

Gelsinger scares me a little because he regularly quotes Scripture on Twitter. And what could be more terrible than a God-fearing engineer? For some reason it seems to me that someday he will quote from the "Apocalypse" by John the Theologian and the uprising of machines will begin.

#Echo116: Intel's plan to beat everyone

However, this is still far away, but for now, Intel is trying to fight honestly. Due to the most interesting presentation, Xiaomi did not have time to talk about Intel in the previous article. By the way, if you missed about Xiaomi, then please read. The company begins a new A-brand stage.

In Intel, of course, everything is not as bright and colorful as Xiaomi, but there is also something interesting. So, on March 23, Gelsinger gave the keynote speech and began very loudly: "Today we are heading for a new era of innovation and technology leadership from Intel." And I'm damn sure that he almost said next: "Release Skynet." But seriously, Gelsinger is an interesting and charismatic person, watch at least a little bit of the video below to get an idea of ​​the person who headed Intel.

At the event, Gelsinger said everything to reassure and inspire employees, investors and fans of the company.

First of all, he announced that work on 7nm processors is in full swing and in the second quarter of this year the company will share the first results of the Meteor Lake project.

Second, the company is going to spend $20 billion to modernize production facilities and build two new plants in Arizona (with the support of the Biden administration).

Thirdly, he announced plans for a partnership with IBM in order to jointly create a new generation of "logic" (that is, IBM will help with new technical processes).

Fourthly, the company will expand its work with third-party processor factories. And he said that starting from 2023 they will produce not only auxiliary things, but also processors with graphics.

Fifthly, Intel plans to become the main supplier of processor manufacturing facilities for the US and Europe (do you feel why cooperation with the White House Presidential Administration?). The company created a separate division of Intel Foundry Services, which will report directly to Gelsinger and will produce any processor - x86, ARM, RISC-V.

A couple of thoughts on Gelsinger's speech

In January, Echo-105 did a little bit of a discussion of the issues facing Intel in connection with Gelsinger's appointment. And then the material ended with the phrase: “Formally, Intel still has a few years to make adjustments and expand the business. However, it is clear that these will be fundamental changes - contract manufacturing in their factories, active investment in R&D and the transfer of production of some of their processors to outsourcing.

Verno guessed everything, except for investing in the construction of two new factories. Since the current plants are not loaded at 100%. There are two options. Or Intel expects that it can easily ramp up contract manufacturing. Or, given that the press release separately notes the creation of 21 thousand jobs and cooperation with the US Presidential Administration, apparently this is a political decision that will help ensure the first option (about loading production).

It is very curious how the outsourcing of processor production will look like. In particular, it is obvious that we are talking about the capacities of TSMC (well, or there is still Samsung). In theory, the same processors may appear on the market, but made according to different technical processes. That is, for example, desktop Intel Core 11-gen 14 nm from the native Intel factory and the same, but 7 nm, from the TSMC factory.

This is also interesting in the sense that now Intel processors, in fact, do not lag behind AMD processors released using the 7 nm manufacturing process in performance (but yes, they heat up more and are more voracious in terms of performance per unit of energy). Accordingly, imagine the current processor from Intel, but according to a more modern technical process, this is an increase in both performance and energy efficiency, and immediately a clear victory over AMD. Or what do you think?

Instead of a conclusion: A x B x C = X, if X is less than the cost of revision, then ...

In 2016-17, Apple sold laptops with screen cables that were too short. They took such a train, because it was an option to save money, but this led to abrasion of the train. The problem is called Flexgate. The company was sued.

#Echo116: Intel's plan to beat everyone

The court agreed with the plaintiffs' argument that Apple could not have known about the problem, but decided to sell such laptops anyway.

For some reason, I immediately remembered the scene from Fight Club (film) about the formula for recalling cars with defects: “At a car at a speed of 100 km/h, the rear differential fails, and it crashes. Is it necessary to recall such a machine for revision? Take the number of cars sold (A) times the likely number of failures (B) times the average percentage of out-of-court settlements (C). A x B x C = X. If X is less than the rework cost, we do nothing.”

#Echo116: Intel's plan to defeat everyone

Samsung is fiercely protective of its flagship lineup. Reduced price at the start (compared to last year), aggressive discounts and promotions already a month after the start of sales (in the US market). Analysts are talking about a tripling of sales in the US and +30% in South Korea. In general, against the backdrop of the S20 that failed in sales, nothing surprising.

However, while preparing a selection of TV shows for April, I noticed one more piece of news. Samsung has agreed with streaming service Hulu that the latter will host a show called "Exposure" for Samsung, in which people will compete to be the best mobile photographer in the US. On the air since April 26. To be honest, I'm curious to see what happens. Creating an interesting show, from which advertising ears do not stick out, is not an easy task.

BlackBerry 5G

A couple of times I received a question in the mail about how my BlackBerry Key2 is doing. He's doing great. It lies on the leg of the monitor, and the third SIM card is used in it (when it is not occupied in test smartphones), and I still automatically pick it up when I answer mail from a smartphone, I like the feeling of typing on a physical keyboard.

Back in mid-February, there was news that in the next few months OnwardMobility (a new contender for the revival of the brand that bought a license from the original BlackBerry, which is now very successful in software solutions) will tell about a new smartphone.

So far, silence, but there are certain rumors.

The smartphone will definitely have a physical keyboard, and it will support 5G. Separately, the company noted that additional control over the reliability of not only software, but also the entire supply chain with an eye to the highest levels of security (state level. The company's CEO promised an "ultra-secure" device.

It's all a bit disturbing. It seems that they will release an ultra-expensive device on not the newest hardware (because security and proven solutions are needed), which they will try to sell to officials. However, I suspect that due to the current shortage in the markets, production with announcements will be postponed.

What do you think? Is there room for a smartphone with a physical keyboard in 2021-22?

ARM Vision Day: new Armv9 architecture

Why is there so much talk about ARM chipsets lately?

Thanks to Apple and Nvidia for popularizing Arm Holdings. A couple of years ago, the company was rarely mentioned. Everyone knew about Qualcomm, MediaTek or Exynos. But Arm Holdings remained in the shadows, as it does not work with end users, but designs chipsets and sells licenses to use the ARM architecture. Pay attention to the spelling. If all capital letters, then we are talking about chipsets, if there are lowercase letters, then about the company.

Recently Arm has become a buzzword for two categories of reasons.

First, this is a media agenda.

First, Apple released the MacBook on an ARM chipset. And when Apple does something, whether you like it or not, you still find out how Intel differs from ARM. Along the way, Nvidia thought about buying Arm Holding, which made the whole market so excited that it reached the inhabitants.

The second category of reasons for popularity is the combination of availability and performance in certain tasks, and therefore the promise of ARM processors.

The fact that any company has the opportunity to buy a license from Arm Holdings and create its own processor is also a promising factor for ARM chipsets. For example, Amazon is known not only for the fact that its employees are so busy with work that they are forced to seep into a bottle, but also for the development of their own AWS Graviton processor on ARM architecture (already the second generation). This is a specialized processor for the company's cloud services (Amazon is one of the largest cloud computing providers in the world). Guess which processor vendor has been replaced by Amazon's own designs?

Amazon claims that its home processor is up to 7 times faster and 40% more cost effective than x86 solutions. In this case, we are talking about tasks related to machine learning, application servers, high-performance computing, video processing and working with databases.

For example, if we take the current rating of Top 500 supercomputers, then for the time being it consisted of 64-bit processors from Intel using the x86 architecture. Less than 5% was occupied by supercomputers on processors from AMD, there were still 13 computers on processors from IBM and only 3 supercomputers on ARM. In mid-2020, the Japanese Fugaku supercomputer debuted, not only taking first place in all supercomputer ratings, but showing performance that surpasses the combined power of the 5 supercomputers following it.

In fact, Amazon's advertising booklet is the main reason for the popularity - 7 times faster and 40% more profitable in terms of price / performance.

What are the benefits of the new Armv9 architecture?

I would like to say that the 9th version is an architecture that is more in line with modern trends, since the main emphasis was placed on:

  1. Artificial intelligence. AI, machine learning are hot and promising topics. This area includes autonomous cars, virtual and augmented realities, data processing.
  2. DSP features that I think will become noticeable first of all: photo, video and audio processing (+ speech recognition) on the fly. We all already love talking to assistants, using assistants as chatbots, taking photos, upscaling videos to 8K. And VR porn, according to Pornhub, has shot into the sky during the pandemic.
  3. Improved security

Let's talk about the last point in a little more detail, since, in my opinion, it is the most mystically interesting (and incomprehensible).

Arm is about to rethink the current security of processors. The system now assumes that higher-level software can "see" the operation of lower-level software. Conventionally, the management system is like in life, when the director can poke his nose into any department and there are no secrets from him. And if the director is an eccentric, then he can spoil the blood of everyone, or even ruin the company.

Arm Holdings' idea is called Confidential Compute Architecture, or CCA. The bottom line is that for each task / group of tasks, so-called realms (realities), or, in simple terms, opaque containers, will be created, and even the OS will not see what is happening there. It's cool if the OS is infected and is a source of information leakage. That is, it turns out that everyone works as if together, but absolutely independent of each other. If you enter data in any application, then you do not need to be afraid that the OS will recognize them, remember them and merge them. This can be useful, for example, in applications where you need to specify a bank card. The feature will also be appreciated by large corporations, which, relatively speaking, will not have to worry if their employee has picked up a virus on ... (I wanted to say “on a porn site”, but I thought it was already outdated ... where can I find a virus now? Download something from a torrent?).

#Echo116: Intel's plan to beat everyone #Echo116: Intel plan like defeat everyone

More details and examples will be provided by Arm in June.

Why is the new architecture important?

Once a year, Arm Holdings presents its developments, which are then licensed from it by other companies. Accordingly, if you want to know what the next Qualcomm chipset will be, which is usually announced in December, then you need to watch the Arm presentation - Arm TechDay. This case, frankly, is terribly boring, as it is designed for business consumers. Apparently, for this reason, not the slightest attempt is made to somehow entertain the people.

#Echo116: Intel's plan to beat everyone

The past 10 years since the introduction of the Armv8 architecture in 2011, everything has been good and consistently predictable. At a relatively private event dominated by analysts, they showed a presentation and talked about the performance gains from the previous version - new cores, new graphics, new AI capabilities and how it will affect smartphones.

As you know, once a generation there is a Mortal Kombat tournament, and once every 10 years, Arm updates the architecture. The event was called Vision Day, because it is about the vision of the future. I think to make it easier to understand the importance of what is happening, you can compare the new architecture of ARM processors with a new communication standard, for example, with the transition from 4G to 5G. Although, given that there were no such significant changes as in the transition from Armv7 to v8, it is more accurate to compare with the transition from 3G to 4G.

Accordingly, Arm Holdings is faced with a roughly similar problem - how to drag everyone to the new architecture. Everyone understands that 4G / 5G is better, but the transition will take time, effort and resources, so it is clear that the market will be a mixed period in the next couple of years.

To conclude, it's worth noting that Arm has said the mantra that with the new architecture, any OS on any ARM hardware will be able to receive "decades" of security updates if the developer wants to.

#Echo116: Intel's plan to beat everyone

This, by the way, should help solve Qualcomm and Google's current problem with a short (compared to Apple) device support cycle. Not everyone understands this point Art Shop (Fisam Arts, but updating Android versions is not only the business of Google or, say, Xiaomi.An important role in this process is also played by the chipset manufacturer, for example, Qualcomm.Accordingly, Qualcomm should participate not only in the release of smartphones on Android 10 or Android 11, but also to contribute if smartphones are going to upgrade from version 10 to version 11. The fact is that Android is updated entirely, affecting everything: the OS itself, processor drivers, modem, cameras, and in the end, you remember, also all applications are updated.

Last year, Google introduced Project Treble, which was supposed to separate the system into layers and thus simplify updates, as there would be low-level layers (processor, modem, etc.) that would not be affected by the update. Arm decided to help everyone this year by implementing Arm SystemReady.

#Echo116: Intel's plan to beat everyone

Intel: someone has a new architecture, and someone has old problems

Gelsinger's speech

Speaking about the new ARM architecture, one cannot but mention Intel. The company is really having a hard time, as the situation is getting worse every day.

First, Apple dealt a sneaky blow with the transition to ARM chipsets in macbooks, then Nvidia at the presentation emphasized that the 30th GeForce series works great in conjunction with AMD processors, and now here is the new Armv9 architecture with regular exhortations about omnipresence and 100% security.

However, as you remember, Intel is not sitting idly by. The company recently had a new CEO, Pat Gelsinger (formerly at Intel and behind the development of the Intel 80486 processor, then left and is now back).

Gelsinger scares me a little because he regularly quotes Scripture on Twitter. And what could be more terrible than a God-fearing engineer? For some reason it seems to me that someday he will quote from the "Apocalypse" by John the Theologian and the uprising of machines will begin.

#Echo116: Intel's plan to beat everyone

However, this is still far away, but for now, Intel is trying to fight honestly. Due to the most interesting presentation, Xiaomi did not have time to talk about Intel in the previous article. By the way, if you missed about Xiaomi, then please read. The company begins a new A-brand stage.

In Intel, of course, everything is not as bright and colorful as Xiaomi, but there is also something interesting. So, on March 23, Gelsinger gave the keynote speech and began very loudly: "Today we are heading for a new era of innovation and technology leadership from Intel." And I'm damn sure that he almost said next: "Release Skynet." But seriously, Gelsinger is an interesting and charismatic person, watch at least a little bit of the video below to get an idea of ​​the person who headed Intel.

At the event, Gelsinger said everything to reassure and inspire employees, investors and fans of the company.

First of all, he announced that work on 7nm processors is in full swing and in the second quarter of this year the company will share the first results of the Meteor Lake project.

Second, the company is going to spend $20 billion to modernize production facilities and build two new plants in Arizona (with the support of the Biden administration).

Thirdly, he announced plans for a partnership with IBM in order to jointly create a new generation of "logic" (that is, IBM will help with new technical processes).

Fourthly, the company will expand its work with third-party processor factories. And he said that starting from 2023 they will produce not only auxiliary things, but also processors with graphics.

Fifthly, Intel plans to become the main supplier of processor manufacturing facilities for the US and Europe (do you feel why cooperation with the White House Presidential Administration?). The company created a separate division of Intel Foundry Services, which will report directly to Gelsinger and will produce any processor - x86, ARM, RISC-V.

A couple of thoughts on Gelsinger's speech

In January, Echo-105 did a little bit of a discussion of the issues facing Intel in connection with Gelsinger's appointment. And then the material ended with the phrase: “Formally, Intel still has a few years to make adjustments and expand the business. However, it is clear that these will be fundamental changes - contract manufacturing in their factories, active investment in R&D and the transfer of production of some of their processors to outsourcing.

Verno guessed everything, except for investing in the construction of two new factories. Since the current plants are not loaded at 100%. There are two options. Or Intel expects that it can easily ramp up contract manufacturing. Or, given that the press release separately notes the creation of 21 thousand jobs and cooperation with the US Presidential Administration, apparently this is a political decision that will help ensure the first option (about loading production).

It is very curious how the outsourcing of processor production will look like. In particular, it is obvious that we are talking about the capacities of TSMC (well, or there is still Samsung). In theory, the same processors may appear on the market, but made according to different technical processes. That is, for example, desktop Intel Core 11-gen 14 nm from the native Intel factory and the same, but 7 nm, from the TSMC factory.

This is also interesting in the sense that now Intel processors, in fact, do not lag behind AMD processors released using the 7 nm manufacturing process in performance (but yes, they heat up more and are more voracious in terms of performance per unit of energy). Accordingly, imagine the current processor from Intel, but according to a more modern technical process, this is an increase in both performance and energy efficiency, and immediately a clear victory over AMD. Or what do you think?

Instead of a conclusion: A x B x C = X, if X is less than the cost of revision, then ...

In 2016-17, Apple sold laptops with screen cables that were too short. They took such a train, because it was an option to save money, but this led to abrasion of the train. The problem is called Flexgate. The company was sued.

#Echo116: Intel's plan to beat everyone

The court agreed with the plaintiffs' argument that Apple could not have known about the problem, but decided to sell such laptops anyway.

For some reason, I immediately remembered the scene from Fight Club (film) about the formula for recalling cars with defects: “At a car at a speed of 100 km/h, the rear differential fails, and it crashes. Is it necessary to recall such a machine for revision? Take the number of cars sold (A) times the likely number of failures (B) times the average percentage of out-of-court settlements (C). A x B x C = X. If X is less than the rework cost, we do nothing.”

#Echo116: Intel's plan to defeat everyone

Samsung is fiercely protective of its flagship lineup. Reduced price at the start (compared to last year), aggressive discounts and promotions already a month after the start of sales (in the US market). Analysts are talking about a tripling of sales in the US and +30% in South Korea. In general, against the backdrop of the S20 that failed in sales, nothing surprising.

However, while preparing a selection of TV shows for April, I noticed one more piece of news. Samsung has agreed with streaming service Hulu that the latter will host a show called "Exposure" for Samsung, in which people will compete to be the best mobile photographer in the US. On the air since April 26. To be honest, I'm curious to see what happens. Creating an interesting show, from which advertising ears do not stick out, is not an easy task.

BlackBerry 5G

A couple of times I received a question in the mail about how my BlackBerry Key2 is doing. He's doing great. It lies on the leg of the monitor, and the third SIM card is used in it (when it is not occupied in test smartphones), and I still automatically pick it up when I answer mail from a smartphone, I like the feeling of typing on a physical keyboard.

Back in mid-February, there was news that in the next few months OnwardMobility (a new contender for the revival of the brand that bought a license from the original BlackBerry, which is now very successful in software solutions) will tell about a new smartphone.

So far, silence, but there are certain rumors.

The smartphone will definitely have a physical keyboard, and it will support 5G. Separately, the company noted that additional control over the reliability of not only software, but also the entire supply chain with an eye to the highest levels of security (state level. The company's CEO promised an "ultra-secure" device.

It's all a bit disturbing. It seems that they will release an ultra-expensive device on not the newest hardware (because security and proven solutions are needed), which they will try to sell to officials. However, I suspect that due to the current shortage in the markets, production with announcements will be postponed.

What do you think? Is there room for a smartphone with a physical keyboard in 2021-22?

ARM Vision Day: new Armv9 architecture

Why is there so much talk about ARM chipsets lately?

Thanks to Apple and Nvidia for popularizing Arm Holdings. A couple of years ago, the company was rarely mentioned. Everyone knew about Qualcomm, MediaTek or Exynos. But Arm Holdings remained in the shadows, as it does not work with end users, but designs chipsets and sells licenses to use the ARM architecture. Pay attention to the spelling. If all capital letters, then we are talking about chipsets, if there are lowercase letters, then about the company.

Recently Arm has become a buzzword for two categories of reasons.

First, this is a media agenda.

First, Apple released the MacBook on an ARM chipset. And when Apple does something, whether you like it or not, you still find out how Intel differs from ARM. Along the way, Nvidia thought about buying Arm Holding, which made the whole market so excited that it reached the inhabitants.

The second category of reasons for popularity is the combination of availability and performance in certain tasks, and therefore the promise of ARM processors.

The fact that any company has the opportunity to buy a license from Arm Holdings and create its own processor is also a promising factor for ARM chipsets. For example, Amazon is known not only for the fact that its employees are so busy with work that they are forced to seep into a bottle, but also for the development of their own AWS Graviton processor on ARM architecture (already the second generation). This is a specialized processor for the company's cloud services (Amazon is one of the largest cloud computing providers in the world). Guess which processor vendor has been replaced by Amazon's own designs?

Amazon claims that its home processor is up to 7 times faster and 40% more cost effective than x86 solutions. In this case, we are talking about tasks related to machine learning, application servers, high-performance computing, video processing and working with databases.

For example, if we take the current rating of Top 500 supercomputers, then for the time being it consisted of 64-bit processors from Intel using the x86 architecture. Less than 5% was occupied by supercomputers on processors from AMD, there were still 13 computers on processors from IBM and only 3 supercomputers on ARM. In mid-2020, the Japanese Fugaku supercomputer debuted, not only taking first place in all supercomputer ratings, but showing performance that surpasses the combined power of the 5 supercomputers following it.

In fact, Amazon's advertising booklet is the main reason for the popularity - 7 times faster and 40% more profitable in terms of price / performance.

What are the benefits of the new Armv9 architecture?

I would like to say that the 9th version is an architecture that is more in line with modern trends, since the main emphasis was placed on:

  1. Artificial intelligence. AI, machine learning are hot and promising topics. This area includes autonomous cars, virtual and augmented realities, data processing.
  2. DSP features that I think will become noticeable first of all: photo, video and audio processing (+ speech recognition) on the fly. We all already love talking to assistants, using assistants as chatbots, taking photos, upscaling videos to 8K. And VR porn, according to Pornhub, has shot into the sky during the pandemic.
  3. Improved security.

Let's talk about the last point in a little more detail, since, in my opinion, it is the most mystically interesting (and incomprehensible).

Arm is about to rethink the current security of processors. The system now assumes that higher-level software can "see" the operation of lower-level software. Conventionally, the management system is like in life, when the director can poke his nose into any department and there are no secrets from him. And if the director is an eccentric, then he can spoil the blood of everyone, or even ruin the company.

Arm Holdings' idea is called Confidential Compute Architecture, or CCA. The bottom line is that for each task / group of tasks, so-called realms (realities), or, in simple terms, opaque containers, will be created, and even the OS will not see what is happening there. It's cool if the OS is infected and is a source of information leakage. That is, it turns out that everyone works as if together, but absolutely independent of each other. If you enter data in any application, then you do not need to be afraid that the OS will recognize them, remember them and merge them. This can be useful, for example, in applications where you need to specify a bank card. The feature will also be appreciated by large corporations, which, relatively speaking, will not have to worry if their employee has picked up a virus on ... (I wanted to say “on a porn site”, but I thought it was already outdated ... where can I find a virus now? Download something from a torrent?).

#Echo116: Intel's plan to beat everyone #Echo116: Intel plan like defeat everyone

More details and examples will be provided by Arm in June.

Why is the new architecture important?

Once a year, Arm Holdings presents its developments, which are then licensed from it by other companies. Accordingly, if you want to know what the next Qualcomm chipset will be, which is usually announced in December, then you need to watch the Arm presentation - Arm TechDay. This case, frankly, is terribly boring, as it is designed for business consumers. Apparently, for this reason, not the slightest attempt is made to somehow entertain the people.

#Echo116: Intel's plan to beat everyone

The past 10 years since the introduction of the Armv8 architecture in 2011, everything has been good and consistently predictable. At a relatively private event dominated by analysts, they showed a presentation and talked about the performance gains from the previous version - new cores, new graphics, new AI capabilities and how it will affect smartphones.

As you know, once a generation there is a Mortal Kombat tournament, and once every 10 years, Arm updates the architecture. The event was called Vision Day, because it is about the vision of the future. I think to make it easier to understand the importance of what is happening, you can compare the new architecture of ARM processors with a new communication standard, for example, with the transition from 4G to 5G. Although, given that there were no such significant changes as in the transition from Armv7 to v8, it is more accurate to compare with the transition from 3G to 4G.

Accordingly, Arm Holdings is faced with a roughly similar problem - how to drag everyone to the new architecture. Everyone understands that 4G / 5G is better, but the transition will take time, effort and resources, so it is clear that the market will be a mixed period in the next couple of years.

To conclude, it's worth noting that Arm has said the mantra that with the new architecture, any OS on any ARM hardware will be able to receive "decades" of security updates if the developer wants to.

#Echo116: Intel's plan to beat everyone

This, by the way, should help solve Qualcomm and Google's current problem with a short (compared to Apple) device support cycle. Not everyone understands this point Art Shop (Fisam Arts, but updating Android versions is not only the business of Google or, say, Xiaomi.An important role in this process is also played by the chipset manufacturer, for example, Qualcomm.Accordingly, Qualcomm should participate not only in the release of smartphones on Android 10 or Android 11, but also to contribute if smartphones are going to upgrade from version 10 to version 11. The fact is that Android is updated entirely, affecting everything: the OS itself, processor drivers, modem, cameras, and in the end, you remember, also all applications are updated.

Last year, Google introduced Project Treble, which was supposed to separate the system into layers and thus simplify updates, as there would be low-level layers (processor, modem, etc.) that would not be affected by the update. Arm decided to help everyone this year by implementing Arm SystemReady.

#Echo116: Intel's plan to beat everyone

Intel: someone has a new architecture, and someone has old problems

Gelsinger's speech

Speaking about the new ARM architecture, one cannot but mention Intel. The company is really having a hard time, as the situation is getting worse every day.

First, Apple dealt a sneaky blow with the transition to ARM chipsets in macbooks, then Nvidia at the presentation emphasized that the 30th GeForce series works great in conjunction with AMD processors, and now here is the new Armv9 architecture with regular exhortations about omnipresence and 100% security.

However, as you remember, Intel is not sitting idly by. The company recently had a new CEO, Pat Gelsinger (formerly at Intel and behind the development of the Intel 80486 processor, then left and is now back).

Gelsinger scares me a little because he regularly quotes Scripture on Twitter. And what could be more terrible than a God-fearing engineer? For some reason it seems to me that someday he will quote from the "Apocalypse" by John the Theologian and the uprising of machines will begin.

#Echo116: Intel's plan to beat everyone

However, this is still far away, but for now, Intel is trying to fight honestly. Due to the most interesting presentation, Xiaomi did not have time to talk about Intel in the previous article. By the way, if you missed about Xiaomi, then please read. The company begins a new A-brand stage.

In Intel, of course, everything is not as bright and colorful as Xiaomi, but there is also something interesting. So, on March 23, Gelsinger gave the keynote speech and began very loudly: "Today we are heading for a new era of innovation and technology leadership from Intel." And I'm damn sure that he almost said next: "Release Skynet." But seriously, Gelsinger is an interesting and charismatic person, watch at least a little bit of the video below to get an idea of ​​the person who headed Intel.

At the event, Gelsinger said everything to reassure and inspire employees, investors and fans of the company.

First of all, he announced that work on 7nm processors is in full swing and in the second quarter of this year the company will share the first results of the Meteor Lake project.

Second, the company is going to spend $20 billion to modernize production facilities and build two new plants in Arizona (with the support of the Biden administration).

Thirdly, he announced plans for a partnership with IBM to create a new generation of "logic" together (that is, IBM will help with new technical processes).

Fourthly, the company will expand its work with third-party processor factories. And he said that starting from 2023, they will produce not only auxiliary things, but also processors with graphics.

Fifthly, Intel plans to become the main supplier of processor manufacturing facilities for the US and Europe (do you feel why cooperation with the White House Presidential Administration?). The company created a separate division of Intel Foundry Services, which will report directly to Gelsinger and will produce any processor - x86, ARM, RISC-V.

A couple of thoughts on Gelsinger's speech

In January, Echo-105 did a little bit of a discussion of the issues facing Intel in connection with Gelsinger's appointment. And then the material ended with the phrase: “Formally, Intel still has a few years to make adjustments and expand the business. However, it is clear that these will be fundamental changes - contract manufacturing in their factories, active investment in R&D and the transfer of production of some of their processors to outsourcing.

Verno guessed everything, except for investing in the construction of two new factories. Since the current plants are not loaded at 100%. There are two options. Or Intel expects that it can easily ramp up contract manufacturing. Or, given that the press release separately notes the creation of 21 thousand jobs and cooperation with the US Presidential Administration, apparently this is a political decision that will help ensure the first option (about loading production).

It is very curious how the outsourcing of processor production will look like. In particular, it is obvious that we are talking about the capacities of TSMC (well, or there is still Samsung). In theory, the same processors may appear on the market, but made according to different technical processes. That is, for example, desktop Intel Core 11-gen 14 nm from the native Intel factory and the same, but 7 nm, from the TSMC factory.

This is also interesting in the sense that now Intel processors, in fact, do not lag behind AMD processors released using the 7 nm manufacturing process in performance (but yes, they heat up more and are more voracious in terms of performance per unit of energy). Accordingly, imagine the current processor from Intel, but according to a more modern technical process, this is an increase in both performance and energy efficiency, and immediately a clear victory over AMD. Or what do you think?

Instead of a conclusion: A x B x C = X, if X is less than the cost of revision, then ...

In 2016-17, Apple sold laptops with screen cables that were too short. They took such a train, because it was an option to save money, but this led to abrasion of the train. The problem is called Flexgate. The company was sued.

#Echo116: Intel's plan to beat everyone

The court agreed with the plaintiffs' argument that Apple could not have known about the problem, but decided to sell such laptops anyway.

For some reason, I immediately remembered the scene from Fight Club (film) about the formula for recalling cars with defects: “At a car at a speed of 100 km/h, the rear differential fails, and it crashes. Is it necessary to recall such a machine for revision? Take the number of cars sold (A) times the likely number of failures (B) times the average percentage of out-of-court settlements (C). A x B x C = X. If X is less than the rework cost, we do nothing.”

#Echo116: Intel's plan to defeat everyone

Samsung is fiercely protective of its flagship lineup. Reduced price at the start (compared to last year), aggressive discounts and promotions already a month after the start of sales (in the US market). Analysts are talking about a tripling of sales in the US and +30% in South Korea. In general, against the backdrop of the S20 that failed in sales, nothing surprising.

However, while preparing a selection of series for April, I noticed one more piece of news. Samsung has agreed with streaming service Hulu that the latter will host a show for Samsung called "Exposure" in which people will compete to be the best mobile photographer in the US. On the air since April 26. To be honest, I'm curious to see what happens. Creating an interesting show, from which advertising ears do not stick out, is not an easy task.

Blackberry 5G

A couple of times I received a question in the mail about how my BlackBerry Key2 is doing. He's doing great. It lies on the leg of the monitor, and the third SIM card is used in it (when it is not occupied in test smartphones), and I still automatically pick it up when I answer mail from a smartphone, I like the feeling of typing on a physical keyboard.

Back in mid-February, there was news that in the next few months OnwardMobility (a new contender for the revival of the brand that bought a license from the original BlackBerry, which is now very successful in software solutions) will tell about a new smartphone.

So far, silence, but there are certain rumors.

The smartphone will definitely have a physical keyboard, and it will support 5G. Separately, the company noted that additional control over the reliability of not only software, but also the entire supply chain with an eye to the highest levels of security (state level. The company's CEO promised an "ultra-secure" device.

It's all a bit disturbing. It seems that they will release an ultra-expensive device on not the newest hardware (because security and proven solutions are needed), which they will try to sell to officials. However, I suspect that due to the current shortage in the markets, production with announcements will be postponed.

What do you think? Is there room for a smartphone with a physical keyboard in 2021-22?

ARM Vision Day: new Armv9 architecture

Why is there so much talk about ARM chipsets lately?

Thanks to Apple and Nvidia for popularizing Arm Holdings. A couple of years ago, the company was rarely mentioned. Everyone knew about Qualcomm, MediaTek or Exynos. But Arm Holdings remained in the shadows, as it does not work with end users, but designs chipsets and sells licenses to use the ARM architecture. Pay attention to the spelling. If all capital letters, then we are talking about chipsets, if there are lowercase letters, then about the company.

Recently Arm has become a buzzword for two categories of reasons.

First, this is a media agenda.

First, Apple released the MacBook on an ARM chipset. And when Apple does something, whether you like it or not, you still find out how Intel differs from ARM. Along the way, Nvidia thought about buying Arm Holding, which made the whole market so excited that it reached the inhabitants.

The second category of reasons for popularity is the combination of availability and performance in certain tasks, and therefore the promise of ARM processors.

The fact that any company has the opportunity to buy a license from Arm Holdings and create its own processor is also a promising factor for ARM chipsets. For example, Amazon is known not only for the fact that its employees are so busy with work that they are forced to seep into a bottle, but also for the development of their own AWS Graviton processor on ARM architecture (already the second generation). This is a specialized processor for the company's cloud services (Amazon is one of the largest cloud computing providers in the world). Guess which processor vendor has been replaced by Amazon's own designs?

Amazon claims that its home processor is up to 7 times faster and 40% more cost effective than x86 solutions. In this case, we are talking about tasks related to machine learning, application servers, high-performance computing, video processing and working with databases.

For example, if we take the current rating of Top 500 supercomputers, then for the time being it consisted of 64-bit processors from Intel using the x86 architecture. Less than 5% were occupied by supercomputers on processors from AMD, there were still 13 computers on processors from IBM and only 3 supercomputers on ARM. In mid-2020, the Japanese Fugaku supercomputer debuted, not only taking first place in all supercomputer ratings, but showing performance that surpasses the combined power of the 5 supercomputers following it.

In fact, Amazon's advertising booklet is the main reason for the popularity - 7 times faster and 40% more profitable in terms of price / performance.

What are the benefits of the new Armv9 architecture?

I would like to say that the 9th version is an architecture that is more in line with modern trends, since the main emphasis was placed on:

  1. Artificial intelligence. AI, machine learning are hot and promising topics. This area includes autonomous cars, virtual and augmented realities, data processing.
  2. DSP features that I think will become noticeable first of all: photo, video and audio processing (+ speech recognition) on the fly. We all already love talking to assistants, using assistants as chatbots, taking photos, upscaling videos to 8K. And VR porn, according to Pornhub, has shot into the sky during the pandemic.
  3. Improved security.

Let's talk about the last point in a little more detail, since, in my opinion, it is the most mystically interesting (and incomprehensible).

Arm is about to rethink the current security of processors. The system now assumes that higher-level software can "see" the operation of lower-level software. Conventionally, the management system is like in life, when the director can poke his nose into any department and there are no secrets from him. And if the director is an eccentric, then he can spoil the blood of everyone, or even ruin the company.

Arm Holdings' idea is called Confidential Compute Architecture, or CCA. The bottom line is that for each task / group of tasks, so-called realms (realities), or, in simple terms, opaque containers, will be created, and even the OS will not see what is happening there. It's cool if the OS is infected and is a source of information leakage. That is, it turns out that everyone works as if together, but absolutely independent of each other. If you enter data in any application, then you do not need to be afraid that the OS will recognize them, remember them and merge them. This can be useful, for example, in applications where you need to specify a bank card. The feature will also be appreciated by large corporations, which, relatively speaking, will not have to worry if their employee has picked up a virus on ... (I wanted to say “on a porn site”, but I thought it was already outdated ... where can I find a virus now? Download something from a torrent?).

More details and examples will be provided by Arm in June.

Why is the new architecture important?

Once a year, Arm Holdings presents its developments, which are then licensed from it by other companies. Accordingly, if you want to know what the next Qualcomm chipset will be, which is usually announced in December, then you need to watch the Arm presentation - Arm TechDay. This case, frankly, is terribly boring, as it is designed for business consumers. Apparently, for this reason, not the slightest attempt is made to somehow entertain the people.

The past 10 years since the introduction of the Armv8 architecture in 2011, everything has been good and consistently predictable. At a relatively private event dominated by analysts, they showed a presentation and talked about the performance gains from the previous version - new cores, new graphics, new AI capabilities and how it will affect smartphones.

As you know, once a generation there is a Mortal Kombat tournament, and once every 10 years, Arm updates the architecture. The event was called Vision Day, because it is about the vision of the future. I think to make it easier to understand the importance of what is happening, you can compare the new architecture of ARM processors with a new communication standard, for example, with the transition from 4G to 5G. Although, given that there were no such significant changes as in the transition from Armv7 to v8, it is more accurate to compare with the transition from 3G to 4G.

Accordingly, Arm Holdings is faced with a roughly similar problem - how to drag everyone to the new architecture. Everyone understands that 4G / 5G is better, but the transition will take time, effort and resources, so it is clear that the market will be a mixed period in the next couple of years.

To conclude, it's worth noting that Arm has said the mantra that with the new architecture, any OS on any ARM hardware will be able to receive "decades" of security updates if the developer wants to.

This, by the way, should help solve Qualcomm and Google's current problem with a short (compared to Apple) device support cycle. This point is not understood by everyone in the Art Shop (Fisam Arts, but updating Android versions is not only the business of Google or, say, Xiaomi. An important role in this process is also played by the chipset manufacturer, for example, Qualcomm. Accordingly, Qualcomm needs to participate not only in the release smartphones on Android 10 or Android 11, but also to contribute if smartphones are going to upgrade from version 10 to version 11. The fact is that Android is updated entirely, affecting everything: the OS itself, processor drivers, modem, cameras , and at the end, you remember, all applications are also updated.

This, by the way, should help solve the current problem of Qualcomm and Google with a short (compared to Apple) device support cycle. Not everyone understands this moment.
Art Shop (Fisam Arts Art Shop (Fisam Arts , but updating Android versions is not only the business of Google or, say, Xiaomi. The chipset manufacturer, such as Qualcomm, also plays an important role in this process. Accordingly, Qualcomm should not only participate in the release of smartphones on Android 10 or Android 11, but also contribute if smartphones are going to upgrade from version 10 to version 11. The fact is that Android is updated entirely, affecting everything: the OS itself, processor drivers, modem, cameras, and in the end, you remember, all applications are also updated.

Last year, Google introduced Project Treble, which was supposed to separate the system into layers and thus simplify updates, as there would be low-level layers (processor, modem, etc.) that would not be affected by the update. Arm decided to help everyone this year by implementing Arm SystemReady.

Intel: someone has a new architecture, and someone has old problems

Gelsinger's speech

Speaking about the new ARM architecture, one cannot but mention Intel. The company is really having a hard time, as the situation is getting worse every day.

First, Apple dealt a sneaky blow with the transition to ARM chipsets in macbooks, then Nvidia at the presentation emphasized that the 30th GeForce series works great in conjunction with AMD processors, and now here is the new Armv9 architecture with regular exhortations about omnipresence and 100% security.

However, as you remember, Intel is not sitting idly by. The company recently had a new CEO, Pat Gelsinger (formerly at Intel and behind the development of the Intel 80486 processor, then left and is now back).

Gelsinger scares me a little because he regularly quotes Scripture on Twitter. And what could be more terrible than a God-fearing engineer? For some reason it seems to me that someday he will quote from the "Apocalypse" by John the Theologian and the uprising of machines will begin.

However, this is still far away, but for now, Intel is trying to fight honestly. Due to the most interesting presentation, Xiaomi did not have time to talk about Intel in the previous material. By the way, if you missed about Xiaomi, then please read. The company begins a new A-brand stage.

In Intel, of course, everything is not as bright and colorful as Xiaomi, but there is also something interesting. So, on March 23, Gelsinger delivered the keynote speech and began very loudly: "Today we are heading for a new era of innovation and technology leadership from Intel." And I'm damn sure that he almost said next: "Release Skynet." But seriously, Gelsinger is an interesting and charismatic person, watch at least a little bit of the video below to get an idea of ​​the person who headed Intel.

At the event, Gelsinger said everything to reassure and inspire employees, investors and fans of the company.

First of all, he announced that work on 7nm processors is in full swing and in the second quarter of this year the company will share the first results of the Meteor Lake project.

Second, the company is going to spend $20 billion to modernize production facilities and build two new plants in Arizona (with the support of the Biden administration).

Thirdly, he announced plans for a partnership with IBM to create a new generation of "logic" together (that is, IBM will help with new technical processes).

Fourthly, the company will expand its work with third-party processor factories. And he said that starting from 2023, they will produce not only auxiliary things, but also processors with graphics.

Fifthly, Intel plans to become the main supplier of processor manufacturing facilities for the US and Europe (do you feel why cooperation with the White House Presidential Administration?). The company created a separate division of Intel Foundry Services, which will report directly to Gelsinger and will produce any processor - x86, ARM, RISC-V.

A couple of thoughts on Gelsinger's speech

In January, Echo-105 did a little bit of a discussion of the issues facing Intel in connection with the appointment of Gelsinger. And then the material ended with the phrase: “Formally, Intel still has a few years to make adjustments and expand the business. However, it is clear that these will be fundamental changes - contract manufacturing in their factories, active investment in R&D and the transfer of production of some of their processors to outsourcing.

Verno guessed everything, except for investing in the construction of two new factories. Since the current plants are not loaded at 100%. There are two options. Or Intel expects to be able to ramp up contract manufacturing easily. Or, given that the press release separately notes the creation of 21 thousand jobs and cooperation with the US Presidential Administration, apparently this is a political decision that will help ensure the first option (about loading production).

It is very curious how the outsourcing of processor production will look like. In particular, it is obvious that we are talking about the capacities of TSMC (well, or there is still Samsung). In theory, the same processors may appear on the market, but made according to different technical processes. That is, for example, desktop Intel Core 11-gen 14 nm from the native Intel factory and the same, but 7 nm, from the TSMC factory.

This is also interesting in the sense that now Intel processors, in fact, do not lag behind AMD processors released using the 7 nm manufacturing process in performance (but yes, they heat up more and are more voracious in terms of performance per unit of energy). Accordingly, imagine the current processor from Intel, but according to a more modern technical process, this is an increase in both performance and energy efficiency, and immediately a clear victory over AMD. Or what do you think?

Instead of a conclusion: A x B x C = X, if X is less than the cost of revision, then ...

In 2016-17, Apple sold laptops with screen cables that were too short. They took such a train, because it was an option to save money, but this led to abrasion of the train. The problem is called Flexgate. The company was sued.

The court agreed with the plaintiffs' argument that Apple could not have known about the problem, but decided to sell such laptops anyway.

For some reason, I immediately remembered the scene from Fight Club (film) about the formula for recalling cars with defects: “At a car at a speed of 100 km/h, the rear differential fails, and it crashes. Is it necessary to recall such a machine for revision? Take the number of cars sold (A) times the likely number of failures (B) times the average percentage of out-of-court settlements (C). A x B x C = X. If X is less than the rework cost, we do nothing.”